Browsing by Author "Pillay, Y."
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- ItemThe impact of health programmes to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Advances, emerging health challenges and research priorities for children exposed to or living with HIV : perspectives from South Africa(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2019) Goga, A.; Slogrove, A.; Wedderburn, C. J.; Feucht, U.; Wessels, J.; Ramokolo, V.; Bhana, A.; Du Plessis, N.; Green, R. J.; Pillay, Y.; Sherman, G.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Over the past three decades, tremendous global progress in preventing and treating paediatric HIV infection has been achieved. This paper highlights the emerging health challenges of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children and the ageing population of children living with HIV (CLHIV), summarises programmatic opportunities for care, and highlights currently conducted research and remaining research priorities in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. Emerging health challenges amongst HEU children and CLHIV include preterm delivery, suboptimal growth, neurodevelopmental delay, mental health challenges, infectious disease morbidity and mortality, and acute and chronic respiratory illnesses including tuberculosis, pneumonia, bronchiectasis and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. CLHIV and HEU children require three different categories of care: (i) optimal routine child health services applicable to all children; (ii) routine care currently provided to all HEU children and CLHIV, such as HIV testing or viral load monitoring, respectively, and (iii) additional care for CLHIV and HEU children who may have growth, neurodevelopmental, behavioural, cognitive or other deficits such as chronic lung disease, and require varying degrees of specialised care. However, the translation thereof into practice has been hampered by various systemic challenges, including shortages of trained healthcare staff, suboptimal use of the patient-held child’s Road to Health book for screening and referral purposes, inadequate numbers and distribution of therapeutic staff, and shortages of assistive/diagnostic devices, where required. Additionally, in low-middle-income high HIV-prevalence settings, there is a lack of evidence-based solutions/models of care to optimise health amongst HEU and CLHIV. Current research priorities include understanding the mechanisms of preterm birth in women living with HIV to optimise preventive interventions; establishing pregnancy pharmacovigilance systems to understand the short-, medium- and long-term impact of in utero ART and HIV exposure; understanding the role of preconception maternal ART on HEU child infectious morbidity and long-term growth and neurodevelopmental trajectories in HEU children and CLHIV, understanding mental health outcomes and support required in HEU children and CLHIV through childhood and adolescence; monitoring HEU child morbidity and mortality compared with HIV-unexposed children; monitoring outcomes of CLHIV who initiated ART very early in life, sometimes with suboptimal ART regimens owing to medication formulation and registration issues; and testing sustainable models of care for HEU children and CLHIV including later reproductive care and support.
- ItemNeonatal, infant and child health in South Africa : reflecting on the past towards a better future(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2019-12-05) Goga, A.; Feucht, U.; Zar, H. J.; Vanker, A.; Wiysonge, C. S.; McKerrow, N.; Wright, C. Y.; Loveday, M.; Odendaal, W.; Ramokolo, V.; Ramraj, T.; Bamford, L.; Green, R. J.; Pillay, Y.; Nannan, N.Although the neonatal mortality rate in South Africa (SA) has remained stagnant at 12 deaths per 1 000 live births, the infant and under-5 mortality rates have significantly declined since peaking in 2003. Policy changes that have influenced this decline include policies to prevent vertical HIV transmission, earlier treatment of children living with HIV, expanded immunisation policies, strengthening breastfeeding practices, and health policies to contain tobacco and sugar use. The Sustainable Development Goals (2016 - 2030) have shifted the focus from keeping children alive, as expressed in the Millennium Development Goals (1990 - 2015), to achieving optimal health through the ‘Survive, thrive and transform’ global agenda. This paper focuses on important remaining causes of childhood mortality and morbidity in SA, specifically respiratory illness, environmental pollution, tuberculosis, malnutrition and vaccine-preventable conditions. The monitoring of maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes is crucial, and has improved in SA through both the District Health Information and Civil Registration and Vital Statistics systems, although gaps remain. Intermittent surveys and research augment the routinely collected data. However, availability and use of local data to inform quality and effectiveness of care is critical, and this requires ownership at the collection point to facilitate local redress. Potential game changers to improve MCH outcomes include mobile health and community-based interventions. In SA, improved MCH remains a crucial factor for human capital development. There is a pressing need to focus beyond childhood mortality and to ensure that each child thrives.
- ItemTuberculosis control in South Africa : successes, challenges and recommendations(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2014-03) Churchyard, G. J.; Mametja, L. D.; Mvusi, L.; Ndjeka, N.; Hesseling, A. C.; Reid, A.; Babatunde, S.; Pillay, Y.Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health threat, and South Africa (SA) has one of the world’s worst TB epidemics driven by HIV. Among the 22 countries with the highest burden of TB, SA has the highest estimated incidence and prevalence of TB, the second highest number of diagnosed multidrug-resistant TB cases, and the largest number of HIV-associated TB cases. Although SA has made notable progress in reducing TB prevalence and deaths and improving treatment outcomes for new smear-positive TB cases, the burden of TB remains enormous. SA has the means to overcome this situation. In addition to better implementing the basics of TB diagnosis and treatment, scaling up the use of Xpert MTB/RIF as a replacement for sputum smear microscopy, strengthening case finding in and beyond healthcare facilities and a greater focus on TB prevention for people living with HIV, particularly earlier initiation of and scaling up antiretroviral therapy and scaling up continuous isoniazid preventive therapy, will have a substantial impact on TB control. New TB drugs, diagnostics and vaccines are required to further accelerate progress towards improved TB control in SA and beyond.