Browsing by Author "Parsons, Sven D. C."
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- ItemAntigen-specific IP-10 release is a sensitive biomarker of mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle(Public Library of Science, 2016) Parsons, Sven D. C.; McGill, Kevina; Doyle, Mairead B.; Goosen, Wynand J.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Gormley, EamonnThe most widely used ante-mortem diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in cattle are the tuberculin skin test and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay, both of which measure cell-mediated immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis infection. However, limitations in the performance of these tests results in a failure to identify all infected animals. In attempting to increase the range of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis, measurement of the cytokine IP-10 in antigen-stimulated blood has previously been shown to improve the detection of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis infection, in humans and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer), respectively. In the present study, 60 cattle were identified by the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test as tuberculosis reactors (n = 24) or non-reactors (n = 36) and the release of IFN-γ and IP-10 in antigen-stimulated whole blood from these animals was measured using bovine specific ELISAs. There was a strong correlation between IP-10 and IFN-γ production in these samples. Moreover, measurement of the differential release of IP-10 in response to stimulation with M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) and M. avium PPD distinguished between reactor and non-reactor cattle with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 86%–100%) and a specificity of 97% (95% CI, 85%–100%). These results suggest that IP-10 might prove valuable as a diagnostic biomarker of M. bovis infection in cattle.
- ItemCytokine gene expression assay as a diagnostic tool for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus)(Nature Research (part of Springer Nature), 2019) Roos, Eduard O .; Scott, Leere A.; Ndou, Sedzani; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Buss, Peter E.; De Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Warren, Robin M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Sylvester, Tashnica T .; Miller, Michele A.; Parsons, Sven D. C.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium bovis infection has been described in many wildlife species across Africa. However, diagnostic tests are lacking for many of these, including warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus). Most literature on suids has focused on using serological tools, with few studies investigating the use of cell-mediated immune response (CMI) assays. A recent study showed that warthogs develop measurable CMI responses, which suggests that cytokine gene expression assays (GEAs) may be valuable for detecting M. bovis-infection, as shown in numerous African wildlife species. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop GEAs capable of distinguishing between M. bovis-infected and uninfected warthogs. Whole blood was stimulated using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold (In-Tube) system, using ESAT-6 and CFP-10 peptides, before determining the relative gene expression of five reference (B2M, H3F3A, LDHA, PPIA and YWHAZ) and five target (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, IFNG and TNFA) genes through qPCR. The reference gene H3F3A was the most stably expressed, while all target genes were significantly upregulated in M. bovis-infected warthogs with the greatest upregulation observed for CXCL10. Consequently, the CXCL10 GEA shows promise as an ante-mortem diagnostic tool for the detection of M. bovis-infected warthogs.
- ItemThe kinetics of the humoral and interferon-gamma immune responses to experimental Mycobacterium bovis infection in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)(Frontiers, 2017-12) Parsons, Sven D. C.; Morar-Leather, Darshana; Buss, Peter E.; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; McFadyen, Ross; Rutten, Victor P. M. G.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Miller, Michele Ann; Michel, Anita LuiseENGLISH ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis (TB) in a wide range of species, including white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum). Control of the disease relies on the indirect detection of infection by measuring pathogen-specific responses of the host. These are poorly described in the white rhinoceros and this study aimed to characterize the kinetics of immune responses to M. bovis infection in this species. Three white rhinoceroses were infected with M. bovis and their immune sensitization to this pathogen was measured monthly for 20 months. Cell-mediated immunity was characterized in whole blood samples as the differential release of interferon-gamma in response to bovine purified protein derivative (PPDb) and avian PPD (PPDa) as well as the release of this cytokine in response to the M. bovis proteins 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6)/10 kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10). Humoral immunity was quantified as the occurrence or the magnitude of antibody responses to the proteins ESAT-6/CFP-10, MPB83, MPB83/MPB70, and PPDb. The magnitude and duration of immune reactivity varied between individuals; however, peak responses to these antigens were detected in all animals circa 5–9 months postinfection. Hereafter, they gradually declined to low or undetectable levels. This pattern was associated with limited TB-like pathology at postmortem examination and appeared to reflect the control of M. bovis infection following the development of the adaptive immune response. Measurement of these markers could prove useful for assessing the disease status or treatment of naturally infected animals. Moreover, immune responses identified in this study might be used to detect infection; however, further studies are required to confirm their diagnostic utility.
- ItemMeasuring antigen-specific responses in Mycobacterium bovis-infected warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) using the intradermal tuberculin test(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2018) Roos, Eduard O.; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Buss, Peter E.; Hausler, Guy; Warren, Robin M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Parsons, Sven D. C.; De Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Miller, Michele AnnBackground: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis has previously been diagnosed in warthogs and infection can be highly prevalent (> 30%) in endemic areas. Thus, warthogs could potentially be an important species to consider as sentinels for disease surveillance. However, disease surveillance is dependent on availability of accurate diagnostic assays and only a few diagnostic tests have been investigated for warthogs. Furthermore, the tests that have been used in this species require laboratory equipment and trained personnel to obtain results. Therefore, this study investigated the use of the intradermal tuberculin test (ITT) to screen warthogs for bTB, which can be done with minimal equipment and under field conditions by most veterinarians and other qualified professionals. Changes in skin fold thickness measurements at the bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) administration site, between 0 and 72 h, were compared with differential changes between the bovine and avian PPD sites, for 34 warthogs, to evaluate the performance when different interpretation criteria for the ITT was used. Results: Using an increase of 1.8 mm or more at the bovine PPD site as a cut-off for positive responders, 69% of 16 M. bovis culture-positive warthogs had a positive test result, with 100% of the 18 culture-negative warthogs considered as test negative. When a differential of 1.2 mm or more in skin fold thickness at the bovine PPD compared to the avian PPD site was used as a cut-off for the comparative ITT, 81% of culture-positive warthogs were considered as test positive, with 100% of culture-negative warthogs considered as test negative. Conclusion: The findings in this study suggest that the ITT is a promising tool to use when screening warthogs for M. bovis infection.
- ItemMycobacterium bovis in a free-ranging black rhinoceros, Kruger National Park, South Africa, 2016(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017) Miller, Michele Ann; Buss, Peter E.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Parsons, Sven D. C.In 2016, an emaciated black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) was found in Kruger National Park, South Africa. An interferon-γ response was detected against mycobacterial antigens, and lung tissue was positive for Mycobacterium bovis. This case highlights the risk that tuberculosis presents to rhinoceros in M. bovis–endemic areas.
- ItemNovel cause of tuberculosis in meerkats, South Africa(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013-12) Parsons, Sven D. C.; Drewe, Julian A.; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Warren, Robin M.; Van Helden, Paul D.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The organism that causes tuberculosis in meerkats (Suricata suricatta) has been poorly characterized. Our genetic analysis showed it to be a novel member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and closely related to the dassie bacillus. We have named this epidemiologically and genetically unique strain M. suricattae.
- ItemReview of diagnostic tests for detection of mycobacterium bovis infection in South African wildlife(Frontiers Media S.A, 2021-01) Bernitz, Netanya; Kerr, Tanya J.; Goosen, Wynand J.; Chileshe, Josephine; Higgitt, Roxanne L.; Roos, Eduard O.; Meiring, Christina; Gumbo, Rachiel; De Waal, Candice; Clarke, Charlene; Smith, Katrin; Goldswain, Samantha; Sylvester, Taschnica T.; Kleynhans, Léanie; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Buss, Peter E.; Cooper, David V.; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Warren, Robin M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Parsons, Sven D. C.; Miller, Michele A.Wildlife tuberculosis is a major economic and conservation concern globally. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused byMycobacteriumbovis (M. bovis), is themost common form of wildlife tuberculosis. In South Africa, to date, M. bovis infection has been detected in 24 mammalian wildlife species. The identification of M. bovis infection in wildlife species is essential to limit the spread and to control the disease in these populations, sympatric wildlife species and neighboring livestock. The detection of M. bovis-infected individuals is challenging as only severely diseased animals show clinical disease manifestations and diagnostic tools to identify infection are limited. The emergence of novel reagents and technologies to identify M. bovis infection in wildlife species are instrumental in improving the diagnosis and control of bTB. This review provides an update on the diagnostic tools to detect M. bovis infection in South African wildlife but may be a useful guide for other wildlife species.
- ItemThe VetMAX™ M. tuberculosis complex PCR kit detects MTBC DNA in antemortem and postmortem samples from white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer)(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2020) Goosen, Wynand J.; Kerr, Tanya J.; Kleynhans, Leanie; Buss, Peter E.; Cooper, David; Warren, Robin M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Schroder, Bjorn; Parsons, Sven D. C.; Miller, Michele AnnBackground: Bovine tuberculosis and tuberculosis are chronic infectious diseases caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. Infection with M. bovis and M. tuberculosis have significant implications for wildlife species management, public health, veterinary disease control, and conservation endeavours. Results: Here we describe the first use of the VetMAX™ Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) DNA quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection kit for African wildlife samples. DNA was extracted from tissues harvested from 48 African buffaloes and MTBC DNA was detected (test-positive) in all 26 M. bovis culture-confirmed animals with an additional 12 PCR-positive results in culture-negative buffaloes (originating from an exposed population). Of six MTBC-infected African rhinoceros tested, MTBC DNA was detected in antemortem and postmortem samples from five animals. The PCR was also able to detect MTBC DNA in samples from two African elephants confirmed to have M. bovis and M. tuberculosis infections (one each). Culture-confirmed uninfected rhinoceros and elephants’ samples tested negative in the PCR assay. Conclusions: These results suggest this new detection kit is a sensitive screening test for the detection of MTBCinfected African buffaloes, African elephants and white rhinoceros.
- ItemZoonotic Mycobacterium bovis : induced tuberculosis in humans(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013-06) Muller, Borna; Durr, Salome; Alonso, Silvia; Hattendorf, Jan; Laisse, Claudio J. M.; Parsons, Sven D. C.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Zinsstag, JakobWe aimed to estimate the global occurrence of zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae infections in humans by performing a multilingual, systematic review and analysis of relevant scientific literature of the last 2 decades. Although information from many parts of the world was not available, data from 61 countries suggested a low global disease incidence. In regions outside Africa included in this study, overall median proportions of zoonotic TB of ≤1.4% in connection with overall TB incidence rates ≤71/100,000 population/year suggested low incidence rates. For countries of Africa included in the study, we multiplied the observed median proportion of zoonotic TB cases of 2.8% with the continental average overall TB incidence rate of 264/100,000 population/year, which resulted in a crude estimate of 7 zoonotic TB cases/100,000 population/year. These generally low incidence rates notwithstanding, available data indicated substantial consequences of this disease for some population groups and settings.