Browsing by Author "Okoth, Sheila"
Now showing 1 - 2 of 2
Results Per Page
- ItemAssessing genotype-by-environment interactions in aspergillus ear rot and pre-harvest aflatoxin accumulation in maize inbred lines(MDPI, 2017) Okoth, Sheila; Rose, Lindy J.; Ouko, Abigael; Netshifhefhe, Nakisani E. I.; Sila, Henry; Viljoen, AltusAspergillus flavus, causal agent of the Aspergillus ear rot (AER) of maize, also produces aflatoxins that cause aflatoxicosis in humans and livestock. Ten maize inbred lines were evaluated in replicated trials in two aflatoxicosis outbreak hot spots in Kenya and in three maize-growing areas in South Africa for resistance to AER, A. flavus colonization, and pre-harvest aflatoxin accumulation during the 2012/13 growing season. AER severity was measured by visual assessment, while A. flavus colonization and aflatoxin content were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Genotype by environment interaction (GEI) was determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA), additive main effects and multiplicative models (AMMI), and genotype plus by environment (GGE) biplot analyses. Stability of genotypes was evaluated using AMMI analysis. AER severity and fungal colonization significantly (p < 0.001) varied between genotypes. GEI influenced the severity of AER symptoms and aflatoxin accumulation significantly (p < 0.001), while fungal colonization was not affected. The inbred lines response was consistent for this trait in the test environments and was thus considered a desirable measure to indicate maize lines with a high risk of aflatoxin accumulation. CML495, CKL05019, LaPosta, and MIRTC5 were the least diseased lines, with the lowest aflatoxin contamination and a stable phenotypic response across the environments. Kiboko was determined as the ideal representative test environment, with discriminative ability of the genotypes for selection of the desired stable responses of the three traits.
- ItemTolerance to fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin accumulation in maize F1 hybrids and subsequent F2 populations(Wiley Periodicals, 2020-04-24) Ouko, Abigael; Okoth, Sheila; Netshifhefhe, Nakisani E. l.; Viljoen, Altus; Rose, Lindy JoyFusarium verticillioides causes Fusarium ear rot (FER) in maize (Zea mays L.), thus reducing grain quality, yield, and contaminates grains with fumonisins. Grain infection by these fungi occurs before harvest and selection of parental lines resistant to fumonisin accumulation for breeding purposes is the most effective and environmentally friendly control strategy for F. verticillioides. This study intended to evaluate F1 hybrids and F2 breeding populations in Kenya for improved resistance to FER and fumonisin contamination. Trials were artificially inoculated and FER severity, F. verticillioides accumulation, and fumonisin contamination were determined. Inheritance of resistance was also determined in the F1 hybrids. CML444 × MIRTC5, R119W × CKL05015, and CML444 × CKL05015 exhibited little to no FER and had the least fungal and fumonisin contamination, respectively. Inbred lines CML495, CKL05015, and P502 had negative, significant general combining ability (GCA) estimates for F. verticillioides colonization and fumonisin contamination, but positive, significant GCA estimates for 1,000-kernel weight, respectively. The genotype × environment interaction was the main source of variation observed in the F2 populations with R119W × CKL05015 and CML444 × CKL05015 being the most tolerant to fungal and fumonisin contamination in Kiboko and MIRTC5 × CML495 the most tolerant in Katumani.