Browsing by Author "Nicol, Liesl"
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- ItemIodised salt and iodine supplements for prenatal and postnatal growth : a rapid scoping of existing systematic reviews(BioMed Central, 2015-09) Farebrother, Jessica; Naude, Celeste E.; Nicol, Liesl; Andersson, Maria; Zimmermann, Michael B.Background: Iodine deficiency can adversely affect child development including stunted growth. However, the effect of iodine supplementation or fortification on prenatal and postnatal growth in children (<18 years) is unclear. We identified the potential need for a systematic review to contribute to the evidence base in this area. To avoid duplication and inform the need for a new systematic review and its protocol, we undertook a rapid scoping review of existing systematic reviews investigating the effect of iodised salt and iodine supplements on growth and other iodine-related outcomes. Methods: We searched TRIP and Epistemokinos (latest search date 15 December 2014). All English language systematic reviews reporting on the effect of iodine supplementation or fortification in any form, dose or regimen on any iodine-related health outcomes (including but not limited to growth) were included. Eligible systematic reviews could include experimental or observational studies in pregnant or lactating women or children to age 18. We tabulated the extracted data to capture the scope of questions addressed, including: author, publication year, most recent search date, participants, pre-specified treatment/exposure and comparator, pre-specified outcomes, outcomes relevant to our question and number and type of studies included. Methodological quality of included reviews was assessed using AMSTAR. Results: Nine hundred and seventy-six records were screened and 10 reviews included. Most studies were of moderate methodological quality. Outcomes included assessments of thyroid function, iodine deficiency disorders, mental development and growth. Populations studied included pregnant women, preterm infants and children into adulthood. Most reviews looked at direct iodine supplementation or fortification, though some reviews considered iodine status, including the relationship between iodine intake and iodine biomarkers. Although five reviews pre-specified inclusion of growth outcomes, none provided synthesised evidence on the effects of iodine supplementation or fortification on prenatal and postnatal somatic growth. Conclusions: Our rapid scoping review demonstrates a gap in the evidence base with no existing, up-to-date systematic reviews on the effects of all forms of iodine supplementation/fortification in all of the relevant population groups on relevant growth and growth-related outcomes. A new systematic review examining this question will assist in addressing this gap.
- ItemSystematic review of the effects of iodised salt and iodine supplements on prenatal and postnatal growth : study protocol(BMJ Publishing Group, 2015-11) Farebrother, Jessica; Naude, Celeste E.; Nicol, Liesl; Sang, Zhongna; Yang, Zhenyu; Andersson, Maria; Jooste, Pieter L.; Zimmermann, Michael B.Introduction: Iodine is an essential micronutrient and component of the thyroid hormones. Sufficient ingestion of iodine is necessary for normal growth and development. If iodine requirements are not met, growth can be impaired. Salt iodisation and supplementation with iodine can prevent iodine deficiency disorders and stunted growth. No systematic review has yet collated the evidence linking iodine to growth. With an increased emphasis on stunting within the WHO Global Nutrition Targets for 2025, we propose a systematic review to address this question. Methods and analysis: We will undertake a systematic review, and if appropriate, meta-analyses, evaluating the effects of iodised salt or iodine supplements on prenatal and postnatal somatic growth, until age 18. We will search a number of databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsychINFO, the Cochrane Library, including the CENTRAL register of Controlled Trials and also the WHO library and ICTRP (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform), which includes the Clinicaltrials.gov repository. We will also search Wanfang Data and the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database. Included studies must have compared exposure to iodised salt, iodine supplements or iodised oil, to placebo, non-iodised salt or no intervention. Primary outcomes will be continuous and categorical markers of prenatal and postnatal somatic growth. Secondary outcomes will cover further measures of growth, including growth rates and indirect markers of growth such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Ethics and dissemination: The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, and will be sent directly to the WHO, United Nations Children's Fund, International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and other stakeholders. The results generated from this systematic review will provide evidence to support future programme recommendations regarding iodine fortification or supplementation and child growth.
- ItemUniversity curricula in evidence-informed decision making and knowledge translation : integrating best practice, innovation, and experience for effective teaching and learning(Frontiers Media, 2019) Jessani, Nasreen; Hendricks, Lynne; Nicol, Liesl; Young, TarynAs attention to Evidence Informed Decision Making (EIDM) and Knowledge Translation (KT) in research, policy and practice grows, so does a need for capacity enhancement in amongst evidence producers and evidence users. Recognizing that most researchers enter the professional sphere with little or no appreciation of the importance and power of EIDM, the Centre for Evidence-based Health Care at Stellenbosch University, South Africa, spearheaded the development and accreditation of a foundational course titled Evidence-Informed Decision making: The Art, Science and Complexity of knowledge translation. The curriculum draws on the principles of adult learning and effective teaching that includes integrating seven key aspects: (1) extraction of intuitive and tacit knowledge (2) autonomous knowledge generation (3) diverse perspectives (4) learning by doing (5) peer-support and critique (6) facilitator coaching and (7) constant reflection. In this paper, we reflect on these techniques in enhancing understanding and utilization of KT in advancing EIDM. The in-person short course has been offered 5 times since its launch in September 2017 with attendance by ~85 senior researchers and government officials—each of whom left the workshop with three completed outputs: a stakeholder matrix, an engagement strategy for their chosen stakeholder and a plan for evaluating the impact of their KT strategy. Interest in the course has grown considerably: (a) Requests from local institutes of research for dedicated training to their staff; (b) Incorporation into international program partner capacity enhancing strategies; (c) Publication of a book chapter designed using course content; (d) Adaptation and utilization of the templates and tools as teaching resources (e) Informing organizational stakeholder engagement strategies (f) Adaptation of the modules for conference capacity building workshops. In summary, designing courses that take into consideration adult principles of learning is not a new concept. However, effective delivery of such courses is still nascent. We found that integrating the seven aspects mentioned above, including researchers together with decision-makers in the workshops, and having an experienced facilitator is critical for effective learning. Enhancing knowledge and skills “just in time” rather than “just in case” has demonstrated increased potential for immediate relevance, uptake and sustainability.