Browsing by Author "Ngcobo, Ntombenhle"
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- ItemContextualised strategies to increase childhood and adolescent vaccination coverage in South Africa : a mixed-methods study(BMJ Publishing, 2020-06-04) Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Mahasha, Phetole Walter; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith; Ngcobo, Ntombenhle; Grimmer, Karen; Dizon, Janine; Burnett, Rosemary J.; Cooper, SaraIntroduction Despite the unparalleled success of immunisation in the control of vaccine preventable diseases, immunisation coverage in South Africa remains suboptimal. While many evidence-based interventions have successfully improved vaccination coverage in other countries, they are not necessarily appropriate to the immunisation needs, barriers and facilitators of South Africa. The aim of this research is to investigate barriers and facilitators to optimal vaccination uptake, and develop contextualised strategies and implementation plans to increase childhood and adolescent vaccination coverage in South Africa. Methods The study will employ a mixed-methods research design. It will be conducted over three iterative phases and use the Adopt, Contextualise or Adapt (ACA) model as an overarching conceptual framework. Phase 1 will identify, and develop a sampling frame of, immunisation stakeholders involved in the design, planning and implementation of childhood and human papillomavirus immunisation programmes in South Africa. Phase 2 will identify the main barriers and facilitators to, and solutions for, increasing vaccination coverage. This phase will comprise exploratory qualitative research with stakeholders and a review of existing systematic reviews on interventions for improving vaccination coverage. Using the findings from Phase 2 and the ACA model, Phase 3 will develop a set of proposed interventions and implementation action plans for improving immunisation coverage in South Africa. These plans will be discussed, revised and finalised through a series of participatory stakeholder workshops and an online questionnaire, conducted as part of Phase 3.
- ItemNew vaccine introductions in Africa before and during the decade of vaccines –are we making progress?(Elsevier, 2019) Sambala, Evanson Z.; Wiyeh, Alison B.; Ngcobo, Ntombenhle; Machingaidze, Shingai; Wiysonge, Charles S.Vaccines are excellent investments with far-reaching rewards beyond individual and population health, but their introduction into national programs has been historically slow in Africa. We provide an overview of the introduction of new and underutilized vaccines in countries of the WHO African Region by 2017, using data from the WHO-UNICEF Joint Reporting Form. By 2017, all 47 countries had introduced vaccines containing hepatitis B (compared to 11% in 2000 and 98% in 2010) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (compared to 4% in 2000 and 91% in 2010). The proportion of countries that had introduced other vaccines by 2017 was 83% for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) from 7% in 2010, 72% for rotavirus vaccine from 2% in 2010, 55% for the second dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) (compared to 11% in 2000 and 17% in 2010), and 45% for rubella-containing vaccines (RCV) (compared to 4% in 2000 and 7% in 2010). From 2000 to 2010, there was no significant difference between countries eligible (N = 36) and those not eligible (N = 10) for Gavi support in the introduction of hepatitis B and PCV. However, Gavi eligible countries were more likely to introduce Hib and non-Gavi eligible countries were more likely to introduce MCV2 and RCV. From 2010 to 2017, the only significant differences that remained between the two groups of countries were with mumps, inactivated polio and seasonal influenza vaccines; which non-Gavi eligible countries were more likely to have introduced. There has been significant progress in the introduction of new childhood vaccines in Africa, mostly driven by Gavi support. As many countries are expected to transition out of Gavi support soon, there is need for countries in the region to identify predictable, reliable and sustainable immunization funding mechanisms. This requires commitments and actions that go beyond the purchase of vaccines.