Browsing by Author "Myburgh, Franziska"
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- ItemOn constitutive formalities, estoppel and breaking the rules(Juta Law, 2016-08) Myburgh, FranziskaThis article focuses on the general rule in South African law that a successful reliance on estoppel should not result in the enforcement of an agreement prohibited by law.1 More particularly, it considers the application of the rule in the context of formally defective sales of land and suretyships, where section 2(1) of the Alienation of Land Act 68 of 1981 and section 6 of General Law Amendment Act 50 of 1956 respectively prescribe nullity in the event of formal non-compliance. The contention is that the blanket exclusion of estoppel here should be reconsidered.
- ItemThe South African approach to the rectification of agreements subject to constitutive formalities : one step too many(Juta Law, 2014-01) Myburgh, FranziskaThis article examines the South African approach to the rectification of agreements subject to constitutive formal requirements. It focuses on the rule that such an agreement must first comply with formalities ex facie the document recording it, before a court may consider whether the traditional requirements for rectification have been met. In particular, the primary justifications for this rule are assessed: first, a void agreement cannot be rectified and, secondly, ex facie compliance promotes the functions of formalities. An analysis of South African case law reveals not only that these assumptions are questionable, but that the rule is inconsistently applied and leads to the drawing of tenuous distinctions. A brief investigation of both civilian and common-law approaches suggests further that the South African method is based on a misconception of the purpose of rectification: it conflates the correction of the document recording the agreement with the enforcement of that agreement once it is corrected. This leads to the conclusion that the requirement of ex facie compliance should be abolished as a preliminary step and that a South African court should rather consider whether awarding a claim for rectification would defeat the objects of formalities in general.
- ItemStatutory formalities in South African law(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2013-03) Myburgh, Franziska; Du Plessis, Jacques; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Private Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This dissertation examines the approach to statutory formalities in South African law. It focuses primarily on formal requirements which result in nullity in the event of non-compliance, and in particular, on those prescribed for alienations of land (section 2(1) of the Alienation of Land Act 68 of 1981) and suretyships (section 6 of the General Law Amendment Act 50 of 1956). To provide context, the study commences with a general historical overview of the development of formal requirements. It also considers the advantages and disadvantages of formalities. The conclusion is reached that an awareness of both is required if a court is to succeed in dealing with the challenges posed by statutory formalities. The dissertation then considers more specific aspects of the topic of formal requirements, including the difference between material and non-material terms. It also reveals that the current interpretation of statutory formalities is quite flexible and tends towards a conclusion of validity if reasonably possible. However, cases involving unnamed or undisclosed principals present particular challenges in this context, and the possibility of greater consistency, without the loss of theoretical soundness, is investigated. A discussion of what should be in writing, and with what exactitude, necessarily involves a consideration of the extent to which extrinsic evidence is admissible. The interaction between formal requirements and the parol evidence rule is therefore investigated. Special attention is paid to incorporation by reference. After an examination of the common-law approach to this topic, the conclusion is reached that room exists for developing this area of South African law, especially where a sufficient reference to another document is concerned. Rectification also enjoys detailed examination, due to the unique approach adopted in South African law. Where formalities are constitutive, a South African court first satisfies itself that a recordal complies with these requirements ex facie the document, before it will consider whether rectification may be appropriate. An analysis of both civilian and common-law judgments suggests that the South African approach is based on a misconception of the purpose of rectification. This leads to the further conclusion that the requirement of ex facie compliance should be abolished as a separate step and that a court should rather consider whether awarding a claim for rectification would defeat the objects of formalities in general. Finally, the remedies available to a party who performs in terms of an agreement void for formal non-compliance and the effect of full performance in terms of such an agreement, receive attention. An investigation of the remedies available in other legal systems reveals that the South African approach of limiting a party to an enrichment claim is unnecessarily restrictive. It is argued that local courts should reconsider their exclusion of estoppel in this context, particularly in cases where one party’s unconscionable conduct has led the other to rely on the formally defective agreement. In cases of full performance, no remedies are available, but it is argued that a distinction should be drawn between reciprocal and unilateral performances.