Browsing by Author "Mwiinga Chimbanga, Bubala"
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- ItemThe prevalence of intermittent water supply in Southern Africa(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2019-12) Mwiinga Chimbanga, Bubala; Loubser, Carlo; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Engineering. Dept. Civil Engineering.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The ability to supply potable water by water utilities in Southern Africa is being threatened by several factors including increased population and urbanisation, increased demand, water scarcity, inconsistent sources of energy and deteriorating infrastructure. In this regard, many water utilities in this region have resorted to intermittent water supply (IWS) as a management strategy, in an attempt to meet consumers’ basic needs as well as preserve the integrity of the already deteriorated infrastructure. This, over the years, has had a significant impact on the quality and quantity of water distributed. Although most water utilities report improved service delivery, only a statistical demonstration of trends over a period can demonstrate, as well as justify or dispute these performance reports. This research set out to determine three aspects relating to IWS in 11 countries across Southern Africa over a period of 10 years, between 2008 and 2017. The aspects included the variation in the hours of supply, the leading causes of IWS and the extent of IWS in a Southern African country using the case study of South Africa. Furthermore, the research was based on statistics and incorporated secondary water supply data for Angola, Botswana, Swaziland (Eswatini), Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. An attempt was made to gather primary data from 252 water utilities across the 11 countries using an emailed questionnaire, but the response rate was only 0.8%. The secondary data used was gathered from annual reports and online databases, and was analysed using Microsoft Excel and mapped using ArcGIS software packages. The results demonstrate an increase in the population in Southern Africa with access to piped water connections, which was further highlighted by the reduction in the regional connection ratio, which reduced from 53.6 to 40.5 people per connection over the 10 years. The weighted average hours of supply for the region decreased from 21.5 to 18.4 per day between 2008 and 2017, while that for non-revenue water for the region increased from 36.5% to 41.7%. The results also revealed that there are three dominant causes of IWS among water utilities in Southern Africa, which includes maintenance/bursts/failed infrastructure, increased demand and urbanisation, as well as inadequate water resources. In the case study of South Africa, it was estimated that 39.3% of the South African population is affected by some form of intermittency, with 9.2 million of the affected people being from Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. It was also found that of the 54 municipalities that practise IWS, 29 of them probably practise permanent IWS. The results further revealed that the leading causes of permanent IWS in South Africa are increased demand, inadequate pressure/high water loss and vandalism to infrastructure. The results of this research can be referred to by management teams, policy makers and funding institutions to assist in the allocation of resources. The results can also be used to compare country performances against others in the region.