Browsing by Author "Muriuki, Peter"
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- ItemEffectiveness of home-based nutritional counselling and support on exclusive breastfeeding in urban poor settings in Nairobi : a cluster randomized controlled trial(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2017) Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W.; Griffiths, Paula L.; Wekesah, Frederick Murunga; Wanjohi, Milka; Muhia, Nelson; Muriuki, Peter; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Musoke, Rachel N.; Norris, Shane A.; Madise, Nyovani J.Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) improves infant health and survival. We tested the effectiveness of a homebased intervention using Community Health Workers (CHWs) on EBF for six months in urban poor settings in Kenya. Methods: We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Korogocho and Viwandani slums in Nairobi. We recruited pregnant women and followed them until the infant’s first birthday. Fourteen community clusters were randomized to intervention or control arm. The intervention arm received home-based nutritional counselling during scheduled visits by CHWs trained to provide specific maternal infant and young child nutrition (MIYCN) messages and standard care. The control arm was visited by CHWs who were not trained in MIYCN and they provided standard care (which included aspects of ante-natal and post-natal care, family planning, water, sanitation and hygiene, delivery with skilled attendance, immunization and community nutrition). CHWs in both groups distributed similar information materials on MIYCN. Differences in EBF by intervention status were tested using chi square and logistic regression, employing intention-to-treat analysis. Results: A total of 1110 mother-child pairs were involved, about half in each arm. At baseline, demographic and socioeconomic factors were similar between the two arms. The rates of EBF for 6 months increased from 2% pre-intervention to 55.2% (95% CI 50.4–59.9) in the intervention group and 54.6% (95% CI 50.0–59.1) in the control group. The adjusted odds of EBF (after adjusting for baseline characteristics) were slightly higher in the intervention arm compared to the control arm but not significantly different: for 0–2 months (OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.55 to 2.96; p = 0.550); 0–4 months (OR 1.15; 95% CI 0.54 to 2.42; p = 0.696), and 0–6 months (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.61 to 2.02; p = 0.718). Conclusions: EBF for six months significantly increased in both arms indicating potential effectiveness of using CHWs to provide home-based counselling to mothers. The lack of any difference in EBF rates in the two groups suggests potential contamination of the control arm by information reserved for the intervention arm. Nevertheless, this study indicates a great potential for use of CHWs when they are incentivized and monitored as an effective model of promotion of EBF, particularly in urban poor settings. Given the equivalence of the results in both arms, the study suggests that the basic nutritional training given to CHWs in the basic primary health care training, and/or provision of information materials may be adequate in improving EBF rates in communities. However, further investigations on this may be needed. One contribution of these findings to implementation science is the difficulty in finding an appropriate counterfactual for community-based educational interventions.
- ItemEffectiveness of the baby-friendly community initiative in promoting exclusive breastfeeding among HIV negative and positive mothers : a randomized controlled trial in Koibatek Sub-County, Baringo, Kenya(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2020-07-14) Samburu, Betty Mogesi; Young, Sera Lewise; Wekesah, Frederick Murunga; Wanjohi, Milkah Njeri; Kimiywe, Judith; Muriuki, Peter; Griffiths, Paula L.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Madise, Nyovani Janet; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W.Background: Although the baby-friendly community initiative (BFCI) has been proposed as a community-level approach to improve infant feeding practices, there is little data on its variation in effectiveness by HIV status. We conducted a study to determine the effectiveness of BFCI in changing knowledge and attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and increasing the rates among HIV negative and HIV positive women in rural Kenya. Methods: A community-based cluster-randomized controlled trial was implemented from April 2015 to December 2016 among 901 women enrolled across 13 clusters. The intervention groups received a minimum of 12 personalized home-based counselling sessions on infant feeding by trained community health volunteers from their first or second trimester of pregnancy until 6 months postpartum. Other interventions included education sessions at maternal child clinics, mother-to-mother support group meetings and bi-monthly baby-friendly gatherings targeting influencers. The control group received standard health education at the facility and during monthly routine home visits by community health volunteers not trained on BFCI. Primary outcome measures were the rates of EBF at week 1, months 2, 4 and 6 postpartum. Secondary outcomes included knowledge and attitudes regarding breastfeeding for HIV-exposed infants. Statistical methods included analysis of covariance and logistic regression. Results: At 6 months, EBF rates among HIV negative mothers were significantly higher in the BFCI intervention arm compared to the control arm (81.7% versus 42.2% p = 0.001). HIV positive mothers in the intervention arm had higher EBF rates at 6 months than the control but the difference was not statistically significant (81.8% versus 58.4%; p = 0.504). In HIV negative group, there was greater knowledge regarding EBF for HIV-exposed infants in the intervention arm than in the control (92.1% versus 60.7% p = 0.001). Among HIV positive mothers, such knowledge was high among both the intervention and control groups (96% versus 100%, p > 0.1). HIV negative and positive mothers in the intervention arm had more favourable attitudes regarding EBF for HIV-exposed infants than the control (84.5% versus 62.1%, p = 0.001) and (94.6% versus 53.8% to p = 0.001) respectively. Conclusions: BFCI interventions can complement facility-based interventions to improve exclusive and continued breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among HIV negative and positive women.
- ItemRealities and challenges of breastfeeding policy in the context of HIV : a qualitative study on community perspectives on facilitators and barriers related to breastfeeding among HIV positive mothers in Baringo County, Kenya(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2021-05-08) Samburu, Betty M.; Kimiywe, Judith; Young, Sera L.; Wekesah, Frederick M.; Wanjohi, Milka N.; Muriuki, Peter; Madise, Nyovani J.; Griffiths, Paula L.; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W.Background: Although recent policies have sought to increase the rates of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and continued breastfeeding for HIV exposed infants, few programs have considered the multiple social and cultural barriers to the practice. Therefore, to generate evidence for exclusive and continued breastfeeding policies in Kenya, we examined community perspectives on the facilitators and barriers in adherence to EBF for the HIV positive mothers. Methods: Qualitative research was conducted in Koibatek, a sub-County in Baringo County Kenya, in August 2014 among 205 respondents. A total of 14 focus group discussions (n = 177), 14 In-depth Interviews and 16 key informant interviews were conducted. Transcribed data was analyzed thematically. NVivo version 10.0 computer qualitative software program was used to manage and facilitate the analysis. Results: Facilitators to exclusive breastfeeding were perceived to include counselling at the health facility, desire to have a healthy baby, use of antiretroviral drugs and health benefits associated with breastmilk. Barriers to EBF included poor dissemination of policies, knowledge gap, misinterpretation of EBF, inadequate counselling, attitude of mother and health workers due to fear of vertical HIV transmission, stigma related to misconception and misinformation that EBF is only compulsory for HIV positive mothers, stigma related to HIV and disclosure, social pressure, lack of male involvement, cultural practices and traditions, employment, food insecurity. Conclusions: There are multiple facilitators and barriers of optimal breastfeeding that needs a holistic approach to interventions aimed at achieving elimination of mother to child transmission. Extension of infant feeding support in the context of HIV to the community while building on existing interventions such as the Baby Friendly Community Initiative is key to providing confidential support services for the additional needs faced by HIV positive mothers.