Browsing by Author "Mukinda, Fidele K."
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- ItemA document review of the Undergraduate medical curriculum at Stellenbosch University to assess the current state of teaching and learning in order to inform enhancement of Public Health (PH), health systems and services research (HSSR) training.(2012) Willems B; Mukinda, Fidele K.; Cameron NA; Dudley LD
- ItemCapacity-building needs assessment of rural health managers : the what and the how ...(Health and Medical Publishing Group, 2015-07) Goliath, C.; Mukinda, Fidele K.; Dudley, LilianENGLISH SUMMARY : Background: There has been a renewed focus on leadership and governance within the South African health workforce as a key to strengthening the health system. Several studies have highlighted that managers feel poorly prepared for their role and responsibilities and argue for support and development for healthcare managers. This study describes a ‘training’ need assessment conducted for health managers in a rural district which has informed Stellenbosch University Rural Medical Education Partnership Initiative (SURMEPI) continuing professional development activities. Objective: To determine the capacity-building needs and preferred approaches to capacity building for health managers in a rural district. Methods: The study used a mixed method design. A survey was conducted among healthcare managers followed by structured interviews with randomly selected participants. Results were discussed at a workshop and meetings with the district management, which allowed for triangulation and verification of results. Results: Thirty-two (68%) of the 47 health managers in the district completed the questionnaires. Training needs for competencies related to: leadership; communication and knowledge management; infection prevention and control; community/public health and health systems research and strengthening were slightly higher than other areas. Facility managers were prioritised as a target group for leadership and management capacity development. The preferred learning approach was for more practice-based learning in the workplace, supported by e-learning rather than didactic classroom-based teaching. Conclusion: Innovative approaches to capacity development and work-based support in developing intrinsic management competencies for front-line managers were highlighted in this needs assessment.
- ItemA comparative evaluation of PDQ-Evidence(BioMed Central, 2018-03-15) Johansen, Marit; Rada, Gabriel; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Motaze, Nkengafac Vilyen; Opiyo, Newton; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Ding, Yunpeng; Mukinda, Fidele K.; Oxman, Andrew D.Background: A strategy for minimising the time and obstacles to accessing systematic reviews of health system evidence is to collect them in a freely available database and make them easy to find through a simple ‘Google-style’ search interface. PDQ-Evidence was developed in this way. The objective of this study was to compare PDQ-Evidence to six other databases, namely Cochrane Library, EVIPNet VHL, Google Scholar, Health Systems Evidence, PubMed and Trip. Methods: We recruited healthcare policy-makers, managers and health researchers in low-, middle- and highincome countries. Participants selected one of six pre-determined questions. They searched for a systematic review that addressed the chosen question and one question of their own in PDQ-Evidence and in two of the other six databases which they would normally have searched. We randomly allocated participants to search PDQ-Evidence first or to search the two other databases first. The primary outcomes were whether a systematic review was found and the time taken to find it. Secondary outcomes were perceived ease of use and perceived time spent searching. We asked open-ended questions about PDQ-Evidence, including likes, dislikes, challenges and suggestions for improvements. Results: A total of 89 people from 21 countries completed the study; 83 were included in the primary analyses and 6 were excluded because of data errors that could not be corrected. Most participants chose PubMed and Cochrane Library as the other two databases. Participants were more likely to find a systematic review using PDQ-Evidence than using Cochrane Library or PubMed for the pre-defined questions. For their own questions, this difference was not found. Overall, it took slightly less time to find a systematic review using PDQ-Evidence. Participants perceived that it took less time, and most participants perceived PDQ-Evidence to be slightly easier to use than the two other databases. However, there were conflicting views about the design of PDQ-Evidence. Conclusions: PDQ-Evidence is at least as efficient as other databases for finding health system evidence. However, using PDQ-Evidence is not intuitive for some people.
- ItemThe effect of phlebotomy training on blood sample rejection and phlebotomy knowledge of primary health care providers in Cape Town : a quasi-experimental study(AOSIS publishing, 2017-04) Abbas, Mumtaz; Mukinda, Fidele K.; Namane, MosediBackground: There is an increasing amount of blood sample rejection at primary health care facilities (PHCFs), impacting negatively the staff, facility, patient and laboratory costs. Aim: The primary objective was to determine the rejection rate and reasons for blood sample rejection at four PHCFs before and after a phlebotomy training programme. The secondary objective was to determine whether phlebotomy training improved knowledge among primary health care providers (HCPs) and to develop a tool for blood sample acceptability. Study setting: Two community health centres (CHCs) and two community day centres (CDCs) in Cape Town. Methods: A quasi-experimental study design (before and after a phlebotomy training programme). Results: The sample rejection rate was 0.79% (n = 60) at CHC A, 1.13% (n = 45) at CHC B, 1.64% (n = 38) at CDC C and 1.36% (n = 8) at CDC D pre-training. The rejection rate remained approximately the same post-training (p > 0.05). The same phlebotomy questionnaire was administered pre- and post-training to HCPs. The average score increased from 63% (95% CI 6.97‒17.03) to 96% (95% CI 16.91‒20.09) at CHC A (p = 0.039), 58% (95% CI 9.09‒14.91) to 93% (95% CI 17.64‒18.76) at CHC B (p = 0.006), 60% (95% CI 8.84‒13.13) to 97% (95% CI 16.14‒19.29) at CDC C (p = 0.001) and 63% (95% CI 9.81‒13.33) to 97% (95% CI 18.08‒19.07) at CDC D (p = 0.001). Conclusion: There is no statistically significant improvement in the rejection rate of blood samples (p > 0.05) post-training despite knowledge improving in all HCPs (p < 0.05).
- ItemElectronic and postal reminders for improving immunisation coverage in children : protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis(BMJ Publishing Group, 2015) Chachou, Martel J.; Mukinda, Fidele K.; Motaze, Villyen; Wiysonge, Charles S.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Introduction: Worldwide, suboptimal immunisation coverage causes the deaths of more than one million children under five from vaccine-preventable diseases every year. Reasons for suboptimal coverage are multifactorial, and a combination of interventions is needed to improve compliance with immunisation schedules. One intervention relies on reminders, where the health system prompts caregivers to attend immunisation appointments on time or re-engages caregivers who have defaulted on scheduled appointments. We undertake this systematic review to investigate the potential of reminders using emails, phone calls, social media, letters or postcards to improve immunisation coverage in children under five. Methods and analysis: We will search for published and unpublished randomised controlled trials and non-randomised controlled trials in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Science Citation Index, WHOLIS, Clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Platform. We will conduct screening of search results, study selection, data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment in duplicate, resolving disagreements by consensus. In addition, we will pool data from clinically homogeneous studies using random-effects meta-analysis; assess heterogeneity of effects using the χ2 test of homogeneity; and quantify any observed heterogeneity using the I2 statistic. Ethics and dissemination: This protocol does not need approval by an ethics committee because we will use publicly available data, without directly involving human participants. The results will provide updated evidence on the effects of electronic and postal reminders on immunisation coverage, and we will discuss the applicability of the findings to low and middle-income countries. We plan to disseminate review findings through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presentation at relevant conferences. In addition, we will prepare a policymaker-friendly summary using a validated format (eg, SUPPORT Summary) and disseminate this through social media and email discussion groups.
- ItemEquipping medical graduates to address health systems challenges in South Africa : an expressed need for curriculum change(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2015) Mukinda, Fidele K.; Goliath, C. D.; Willems, B.; Zunza, Moleen; Dudley, LilianBackground: Stellenbosch University Rural Medical Education Partnership Initiative (SURMEPI) aims to enhance health systems knowledge and skills to empower medical graduates to address health systems challenges especially in rural and underserved areas. Objectives: To assess the content of health systems research (HSR) and strengthening, and understand perceptions of medical graduates and faculty about HSR in the undergraduate medical curriculum at Stellenbosch University. Methods: We defined HSR and strengthening competencies for medical graduates through a literature review and expert consultations. Learning outcomes in terms of knowledge, skill or attitude in the 64 module guides of the curriculum were compared with the competencies required. A survey of recent medical graduates assessed whether their training equipped them to address health systems challenges. Interviews with faculty assessed their views on teaching health systems competencies. Results. HSR foundational competencies were covered at a basic knowledge level, with little progression of learning levels, and several key competencies were not taught at all. Teaching was not integrated throughout the curriculum. Of 189 graduates, 63 (33.3%) agreed while 67 (35.4%) disagreed that their training prepared them to address health system challenges; 128 (67.7%) agreed on the importance of learning health systems competencies as undergraduates, and proposed learning areas of health system knowledge, leadership and management, problem solving, community service, evaluation methods and health economics. They wanted more practical, problem-oriented HSR training. Faculty supported the relevance and inclusion of HSR and strengthening in the curriculum. Conclusion: The curriculum needs adaptation to better equip students with HSR and strengthening competencies.
- ItemFit for purpose? a review of a medical curriculum and its contribution to strengthening health systems in South Africa(Health and Medical Publishing Group, 2015) Dudley, Lilian; Young, T. N.; Rohwer, A. C.; Willems, B.; Dramowski, Angela; Goliath, C.; Mukinda, Fidele K.; Marais, Frederick; Mehtar, Shaheen; Cameron, N. A.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Background: Medical education in the 21st century needs to produce health professionals who can respond to health systems challenges and population health needs. Although research on medical education is increasing, insufficient attention is paid to the outcomes of medical training, in particular graduates’ competencies and the effects of their training on healthcare and population health in Africa. Method: This baseline study assessed whether the current Stellenbosch University medical curriculum enabled graduates to acquire health systems strengthening competencies. The teaching of competencies in public health, evidence-based healthcare, health systems and services research, and infection prevention and control was assessed through a document review of study guides and a survey of recent medical graduates. Results: We found that teaching of most competencies was included in the curriculum, but appeared fragmented with a lack of continuity across phases of the curriculum. Health systems and health leadership and management teaching was weak, and important public health competencies in human rights and health advocacy received little attention. Recent graduates said their training was ‘adequate’, but were unable to apply knowledge and skills to address health systems challenges within working environments. They wanted more integrated, practical, problem-based teaching in environments in which they would one day work, and their teachers to be role models for the competencies students were expected to acquire. This study is contributing to improvements to the medical curriculum at Stellenbosch University.
- ItemHow clinicians experience a simulated antiretroviral therapy adherence exercise : a qualitative study(AOSIS, 2018-10) Engelbrecht, Justin G.; Mukinda, Fidele K.; Green, Beryl; Skinner, DonaldBackground: With the shift of paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) from tertiary to primary health care, there has been a need to train clinicians working in primary health care facilities to support adherence to treatment. An adherence simulation exercise was included in a course on paediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) to stimulate health care providers’ awareness and generate empathy of complex paediatric adherence practices. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the experience of clinicians completing the simulation exercise and to assess whether enhancing their empathy with patients and treatment supporters would improve their perceived clinical and counselling skills. Setting: The study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, and a guesthouse in Cape Town. Methods: The adherence module used blended learning methodology consisting of face-to-face contact sessions and distance learning. A qualitative thematic approach was used to understand the participant experiences through focus-group discussions and semi-structured interviews. Results: Three thematic clusters emerged, namely, experiences of the simulated exercise, patient–provider relationships and adherence strategies. Their experiences were both positive and challenging, especially when a ‘caregiver and/or treatment supporter’ scenario encouraged participants to reflect on their own relationships with their patients. Clinicians had also considered how empathy fits into their scope of responsibilities. Text messaging and adherence counselling strategies were identified. Conclusion: Simulated learning activities have the potential to create awareness of relationships between clinicians and their patients and generate ideas and discussion that could lead to improvements in clinical practice, and adherence promotion strategies.
- ItemMind the gap! Risk factors for poor continuity of care of TB patients discharged from a hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa(Public Library of Science, 2018) Dudley, Lilian; Mukinda, Fidele K.; Dyers, Robin E.; Marais, Frederick; Sissolak, DagmarBackground: TB patients discharged from hospitals in South Africa experience poor continuity of care, failing to continue TB treatment at other levels of care. Factors contributing to poor continuity of TB care are insufficiently described to inform interventions. Objective: To describe continuity of care and risk factors in TB patients discharged from a referral hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa. Design: This retrospective observational study used routine information to describe continuity of care and risk factors in TB patients discharged from hospital. Results: 788 hospitalized TB patients were identified in 6 months. Their median age was 32 years, 400 (51%) were male, and 653 (83%) were urban. A bacteriological TB test was performed for 74%, 25% were tested for HIV in hospital, and 32% of all TB patients had documented evidence of HIV co-infection. Few (13%) were notified for TB; 375 (48%) received TB medication; 284 (36%) continued TB treatment after discharge; 91 (24%) had a successful TB treatment outcome, and 166 (21%) died. Better continuity of care was associated with adults, urban residence, bacteriological TB tests in hospital and TB medication on discharge. Fragmented hospital TB data systems did not provide continuity with primary health care information systems. Conclusions: Discharged TB patients experienced poor continuity of care, with children, rural patients, those not tested for TB in hospital or discharged without TB medication at greatest risk. Suboptimal quality of hospital TB care and a fragmented hospital information system without linkages to other levels underpinned poor continuity of care.
- ItemRise in rifampicin-monoresistant tuberculosis in Western Cape, South Africa(2012) Mukinda, Fidele K.; Theron D.; Van Der Spuy G.D.; Jacobson K.R.; Roscher M.; Streicher E.M.; Musekiwa A.; Coetzee G.J.; Victor T.C.; Marais B.J.; Nachega J.B.; Warren R.M.; Schaaf H.S.SETTING: Brewelskloof Hospital, Western Cape, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To verify the perceived increase in rifampicin monoresistant tuberculosis (RMR-TB) in the Cape Winelands-Overberg region and to identify potential risk factors. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study of trends in RMR-TB over a 5-year period (2004-2008), followed by a case-control study of RMR and isoniazid (INH) monoresistant TB cases, diagnosed from April 2007 to March 2009, to assess for risk factors. RESULTS: The total number of RMR-TB cases more than tripled, from 31 in 2004 to 98 in 2008. The calculated doubling time was 1.63 years (95%CI 1.18-2.66). For the assessment of risk factors, 95 RMR-TB cases were objectively verified on genotypic and phenotypic analysis. Of 108 specimens genotypically identified as RMR cases, 13 (12%) were misidentified multidrugresistant TB. On multivariate analysis, previous use of antiretroviral therapy (OR 6.4, 95%CI 1.3-31.8), alcohol use (OR 4.8, 95%CI 2.0-11.3) and age ≥40 years (OR 5.8, 95%CI 2.4-13.6) were significantly associated with RMR-TB. CONCLUSION: RMR-TB is rapidly increasing in the study setting, particularly among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Routine drug susceptibility testing should be considered in all TB-HIV co-infected patients, and absence of INH resistance should be confirmed phenotypically if genotypic RMR-TB is detected. © 2012 The Union.
- ItemTemperature variability and occurrence of diarrhoea in children under five-years-old in Cape Town Metropolitan Sub-Districts(MDPI, 2016) Musengimana, Gentille; Mukinda, Fidele K.; Machekano, Roderick; Mahomed, HassanThis paper describes the relationship between temperature change and diarrhoea in under five-year-old children in the Cape Town Metropolitan Area (CTMA) of South Africa. The study used climatic and aggregated surveillance diarrhoea incidence data of two peak periods of seven months each over two consecutive years. A Poisson regression model and a lagged Poisson model with autocorrelation was performed to test the relationship between climatic parameters (minimum and maximum temperature) and incidence of diarrhoea. In total, 58,617 cases of diarrhoea occurred in the CTMA, which is equivalent to 8.60 cases per 100 population under five years old for the study period. The mixed effect overdispersed Poisson model showed that a cluster adjusted effect of an increase of 5 °C in minimum and maximum temperature results in a 40% (Incidence risk ratio IRR: 1.39, 95% CI 1.31–1.48) and 32% (IRR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.41) increase in incident cases of diarrhoea, respectively, for the two periods studied. Autocorrelation of one-week lag (Autocorrelation AC 1) indicated that a 5 °C increase in minimum and maximum temperature led to 15% (IRR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09–1.20) and 6% (IRR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01–1.12) increase in diarrhoea cases, respectively. In conclusion, there was an association between an increase in minimum and maximum temperature, and the rate at which diarrhoea affected children under the age of five years old in the Cape Town Metropolitan Area. This finding may have implications for the effects of global warming and requires further investigation.