Browsing by Author "Mostert, Lizel"
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- ItemThe characterization and control of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot on vine(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2000-12) Mostert, Lizel; Crous, P. W.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Plant Pathology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Phomopsis cane and leaf spot disease of grapevine is an economically important disease in many of the vine-growing areas of the world. Four different Phomopsis spp. have previously been associated with this disease. The present study investigates the taxonomic significance of the different taxa found on grapevines in South Africa, as well as the endophytic growth and fungicide sensitivity of Phomopsis viticola isolates. The thesis is compiled of several different parts, which deal with specific, but related topics, and hence some duplication has been unavoidable. Understanding the epidemiology of a disease is important for the correct timing of disease control. To investigate the endophytic growth of P. viticola, asymptomatic shoots were collected at eight different growth stages. Nodes, internodes, leaf petioles, leaves, tendrils and bunch peduncles were investigated. Two Phomopsis spp., taxon 1 and 2 were identified in this study. The Phomopsis viticola-complex had a relative importance of 9% and accounted for 3% of the isolations. P. viticola (taxon 2) is mainly isolated from the nodes and internodes. Inoculations of healthy, young vine tissue confirmed taxon 2 to be a virulent pathogen, suggesting that it is a latent pathogen rather than an endophyte. In contrast, taxon 1 appeared to be a true endophyte, and did not seem to be an important pathogen on vines. The true identity of the causal organism of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot disease was investigated by collecting samples from 58 different vineyards in the grapevine growing areas of the Western Cape. P. viiicola occurred in grapevine material collected from Lutzville to Swellendam, but was not found in the Oudtshoorn and Orange River grapevine areas. Diaporthe perjuncta (taxon 1), P. vutcola (taxon 2), taxon 3 and a Phomopsis species commonly associated with shoot blight of peaches in the U.S.A., P. amygdali, were identified among the South African grapevine isolates. Examination of the Australian culture designated as taxon 4 found it to be a species of Libertella, thus excluding it from the P. viticola-complex. An Italian isolate was found to represent a species of Phomopsis not previously known from grapevines, and this was subsequently described as taxon 5. Species delimitation was based on morphological and cultural characteristics, stem inoculations and the formation of the teleomorph in vitro. The identity of each morphological taxon was confirmed by means of phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and ITS2) and the 5' end partial sequence of the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU). P. amygdali, associated with peach shoot blight in the U.S.A., was isolated once only and appeared to be of lesser importance in this disease complex. Furthermore, taxa 1 (Diaporthe perjuncta) and 3 were also rarely encountered and proved to be non-pathogenic, indicating their non-functional role in Phomopsis cane and leaf spot disease. Taxon 2 (Phomopsis viticolas was common and widely distributed in diseased vineyards. This taxon was associated with the typical disease symptoms and proved to be pathogenic. Morphologically taxon 2 corresponded best with P. viticola, which was also neotypified in this study. Taxon 2 was mostly isolated from buds and nodes, indicating that these are important sites in which the fungus survives during winter. Molecular data indicated that taxon 3 and P. amygdali were not host specific to grapevine. The currently used foliar fungicides were compared to the new strobilurin fungicides. The effects of nine fungicides (azoxystrobin, flusilazole, folpet, fosetyl- Al+mancozeb, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, penconazole, spiroxamine and trifloxystrobin) were tested in vitro on inhibition of mycelial growth. The following EC50 (ug/ml) values were obtained: azoxystrobin (0.350), flusilazole (0.007), folpet (4.489), fosetyl-Al+mancozeb (3.925), kresoxim-methyl (1.665), mancozeb (2.891), penconazole (0.023), spiroxamine (0.321) and trifloxystrobin (0.051). Additionally, azoxystrobin, folpet, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, propineb and trifloxystrobin were tested for their ability to inhibit spore germination in vitro. The subsequent EC50 (ug/ml) values were obtained: azoxystrobin 0.123), folpet (0.510), kresoxim-methyl (0.0037), mancozeb (0.250), propineb (0.156) and trifloxystrobin (0.003). The results reported in part 4 showed that the strobilurin fungicides inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of P. viticola. However, further trials need to be conducted to verify these findings under field conditions. In the present study taxa 1, 3 and P. amygdali were infrequently isolated, suggesting that they played a less prominent role in the P. viticolacomplex.
- ItemDetection and quantification of black foot and crown and root rot pathogens in grapevine nursery soils in the Western Cape of South Africa(Firenze University Press, 2018) Langenhoven, Shaun; Halleen, Francois; Spies, Christoffel F. J.; Stempien, Elodie; Mostert, LizelBlack foot disease (BFD) and crown and root rot (CRR) are important soilborne diseases that affect young grapevines in nurseries and vineyards. A 3-year survey (2013–2015) of five open-field grapevine nurseries was conducted in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The survey involved the isolation of BFD and CRR pathogens from grafted rootstocks (ten plants per nursery, per year) that were rooted in soil for 1 year. In 2013 and 2015, grapevines were sampled, while in 2014, sampling was focused on rotation crops and weeds (ten plants each). The rotation crops included white mustard, lupins, canola, triticale and forage radish. The weed species sampled included Johnson grass, ryegrass, winter grass, Cape marigold and corn spurry. Soil samples from ten sites per nursery were also collected in close proximity to the sampled plants, at depths of 0–30 cm and 30–60 cm (ten samples per depth). Isolations were made from the grapevines, rotation crops and weeds. Pathogen detection and quantification in the soil were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction technology. The predominant BFD pathogens isolated from grapevines were Campylocarpon fasciculare, Ca. pseudofasciculare and Dactylonectria macrodidyma. The predominant CRR pathogens were Pythium irregulare and Phytopythium vexans. Dactylonectria macrodidyma, D. novozelandica, D. pauciseptata, Py. irregulare, Py. ultimum var. ultimum and Py. heterothallicum were isolated from triticale roots. Dactylonectria spp. were also isolated from corn spurry, while Py. irregulare and Py. ultimum var. ultimum were isolated from numerous weeds and rotation crops. Mean soil DNA concentrations of Ilyonectria and Dactylonectria were from 0.04 to 37.14 pg μL-1, and for Py. irregulare were between 0.01 and 3.77 pg μL-1. The Phytophthora mean soil DNA concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 33.48 pg μL-1. The qPCR protocols successfully detected and quantified BFD and CRR pathogens in grapevine nursery soil. This is the first report of D. pauciseptata and D. alcacerensis in South African grapevine nurseries.
- ItemThe distribution and host range of the banana fusarium wilt fungus, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense , in Asia(Public Library of Science, 2017) Mostert, Diane; Molina, Agustin B.; Daniells, Jeff; Fourie, Gerda; Hermanto, Catur; Chao, Chih- Ping; Fabregar, Emily; Sinohin, Vida G.; Masdek, Nik; Thangavelu, Raman; Li, Chunyu; Yi, Ganyun; Mostert, Lizel; Viljoen, AltusFusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (Foc) is a soil-borne fungus that causes Fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. The fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the Indo-Malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. The diversity and distribution of Foc in Asia was investigated. A total of 594 F. oxysporum isolates collected in ten Asian countries were identified by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) analysis. To simplify the identification process, the isolates were first divided into DNA lineages using PCR-RFLP analysis. Six lineages and 14 VCGs, representing three Foc races, were identified in this study. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. Sixty-nine F. oxysporum isolates in this study did not match any of the known VCG tester strains. In this study, Foc VCG diversity in Bangladesh, Cambodia and Sri Lanka was determined for the first time and VCGs 01221 and 01222 were first reported from Cambodia and Vietnam. New associations of Foc VCGs and banana cultivars were recorded in all the countries where the fungus was collected. Information obtained in this study could help Asian countries to develop and implement regulatory measures to prevent the incursion of Foc into areas where it does not yet occur. It could also facilitate the deployment of disease resistant banana varieties in infested areas.
- ItemHymenochaetales associated with esca-related wood rots on grapevine with a special emphasis on the status of esca in South African vineyards(Firenze University Press, 2015) Cloete, Mia; Fischer, Michael; Mostert, Lizel; Halleen, FrancoisEsca disease is a problem on grapevines worldwide. This disease complex is characterised by several external and internal symptoms including foliar tiger-stripe chlorosis and necrosis, dieback, wood necrosis and white rot. The causal organisms of esca are primarily Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, several Phaeoacremonium species and basidiomycete species from the order Hymenochaetales, the latter ones responsible for causing the white rot symptom. Basidiomycete species causing the wood rot symptom of esca differ among grapevine-growing areas worldwide. South African vineyards are unique in having a minimum of ten different basidiomycete taxa from five different genera associated with the esca complex. In general, Hymenochaetales species are associated with white rot on woody plants and there are several species that are economically important to the agricultural and forestry industries. Few Hymenochaetales species have been described from the African continent, though this review is an indication of the previously unknown diversity of these fungi in Southern Africa.
- ItemOccurrence fungi causing black foot on young grapevines and nursery rootstock plants in Italy(Firenze University Press, 2017) Carlucci, Antonia; Lops, Francesco; Mostert, Lizel; Halleen, Francois; Raimondo, Maria LuisaYoung grapevine plants with decline and wood necrosis symptoms were collected from vineyards and nurseries in the Apulia and Molise regions, Italy, from 2013 to 2015. Isolations of fungi were prepared from 45 diseased grapevine plants, and the cultures were identified. Several species commonly associated with Petri disease, Botryosphaeria dieback, and black foot disease were isolated. A detailed study was carried out, and 182 isolates resembling Cylindrocarpon-like asexual forms were identified through morphological characterisation and DNA analysis of internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 of the rRNA gene and the partial β-tubulin gene. Dactylonectria torrensensis and Ilyonectria liriodendri were identified based on morphological features and the partial histone 3 gene, so these fungi can be defined as the causal agents of black foot on grapevine for the first time in Italy. Thelonectria blackeriella is also described as a new species, through morphological characterisation and multigenic analysis using sequence data for five loci (large subunit RNA, internal transcribed spacers, β-tubulin, actin, RNA polymerase II subunit 1). This new species was associated with black foot symptoms according to preliminary pathogenicity tests, with representative isolates of each of the three species. Pathogenicity tests showed that these species can cause black streaking in the wood of 1-year-old grapevine rootstock shoots. The identification of D. torresensis, I. liriodendri and T. blackeriella from young grapevine plants and rooted rootstock highlights the importance of black foot disease in Italy, which has previously been overlooked.
- ItemPathogenicity of South African Hymenochaetales taxa isolated from esca-infected grapevines(Firenze University Press, 2015) Cloete, Mia; Mostert, Lizel; Fischer, Michael; Halleen, FrancoisLittle is known about the pathogenicity and etiology of Hymenochaetales taxa associated with esca in South Africa. Ten South African Hymenochaetales taxa associated with esca in grapevine were subjected to basic enzyme assays to determine which ligninolytic enzymes were secreted by each taxon. In addition, a field trial was undertaken to determine the pathogenicity of these taxa. Twenty-seven fungal isolates and two negative controls were inoculated into wounds made on mature grapevines of the cultivars Shiraz and Mourvédre. Inoculated vines were evaluated for white rot symptoms after 24 months. The results of the enzyme assays indicated a difference in enzyme secretion among taxa and also between isolates of the same taxa. All isolates secreted cellulase and laccase, but there was a difference in isolates’ ability to secrete manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase. The results of the pathogenicity trial showed that all of the isolates used were capable of causing the characteristic white rot symptom in the wood. There were clear differences in susceptibility to white rot between the two cultivars tested, namely Shiraz and Mourvédre. The cultivars also differed in which taxa proved to be more virulent. On Shiraz a specific isolate of Taxon 6 (an Inonotus sp.), Phellinus sp. and Inonotus setuloso-croceus were significantly virulent. On Mourvédre, Taxon 3 (an Inocutis sp.) was significantly virulent.
- ItemPathogenicity of ten Phaeoacremonium species associated with esca and Petri disease of grapevine(Firenze University Press, 2018) Baloyi, Mahlatse A.; Mostert, Lizel; Halleen, FrancoisNineteen species of Phaeoacremonium have been associated with grapevines in South Africa, of which only six species have been confirmed as pathogens through pathogenicity tests conducted on field-grown grapevines. This study determined the pathogenic status of ten Phaeoacremonium spp. recently found for the first time on South African grapevines. These were: Pm. australiense, Pm. austroafricanum, Pm. fraxinopennsylvanicum, Pm. griseo-olivaceum, Pm. griseorubrum, Pm. iranianum, Pm. italicum, Pm. prunicolum, Pm. scolyti and Pm. sicilianum. In the pathogenicity tests, Ph. parasiticum was used as the positive control, and sterile water as the negative control. Up to three isolates were used per species, depending on isolate availability. Freshly cut pruning wounds in a 9-yearold Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard in Stellenbosch, South Africa, were inoculated with 200 conidia of each fungus per wound. Inoculated pruning wounds were removed after 18 months, cut longitudinally and lesion lengths were measured. Re-isolation proportions were determined by conducting isolations from inoculated spurs. All the inoculated isolates successfully colonized pruning wounds, and caused lesions that were significantly different from the negative control. All isolates were re-isolated at proportions varying from 28.6 to 85.7%. Phaeoacremonium griseo-olivaceum STE-U 7859 produced the longest lesions (mean = 79.5 mm) and Pm. iranianum STE-U 6998 the shortest (62.0 mm). No statistically significant differences in mean lesion lengths were observed between the inoculated species. There were also no significant differences between isolates of the same species, except in Pm. prunicolum where isolate STE-U 5968 produced longer lesions (mean = 77.3 mm) than STE-U 7857 (62.3 mm). This study confirmed the capabilities of all the tested Phaeoacremonium spp. to infect grapevine pruning wounds and cause lesions. The study also confirmed the importance of pruning wounds as ports of entry by these pathogens into host plants.