Browsing by Author "Morris, Carla"
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- ItemDevelopments in the value-added efficiency of South African workers : an exploratory study(AOSIS, 2015-12-31) Morris, CarlaHuman capital efficiency (HCE) refers to an employee's ability to create value-added for his employer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the movement in HCE of the workers of South African listed companies over time. The metric for HCE, value-added human capital (VAHU), is calculated as the value-added per Rand spent on employee costs. The median of the compound annual growth rate of VAHU was calculated for all JSE Main Board and ALT-X listed companies, per industry, over the financial years ended 31 December 2001 to 30 June 2011. This median growth was used to infer an improvement or deterioration in HCE. HCE was found to have declined in all South African industries, except Consumer Services, from 2001 to 2011. The overall decline is attributable to an over-emphasis on tangible physical resources; excessive compensation levels imposed by the ‘strike’ culture in South Africa; poor education and, possibly, to the overall economic decline after the global financial crisis of 2007. The government's drive for quality education has not translated into improved HCE. Companies may be forced to shoulder the cost of additional education and training themselves to further develop the basic skills of their employees.
- ItemAn empirical investigation of the impact of human capital efficiency on the financial and market performance of South African listed companies(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-04) Morris, Carla; Bruwer, B. W.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Accountancy.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Human capital efficiency, as measured by Value-Added Human Capital (VAHU), refers to an employee's ability to create value-added for his employer. As a key resource which is not captured by conventional accounting, human capital and its value-creating ability may contribute to the premium to book value at which many companies trade. This study, therefore, sought to investigate trends in the divergence between book value and market value in South Africa, by analysing the median market-to-book ratios of companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange over time. The primary research objectives, however, were to empirically confirm whether corporate financial and market performance in South Africa can be explained as a contemporaneous and future outcome of human capital efficiency, and whether human capital efficiency is improving. In a largely industrialised emerging market, such as South Africa, there is some concern that companies which concentrate on efficient and productive management of their tangible assets may neglect the effective skills development and training of their human capital assets. Time-series cross-sectional multiple regressions were used to analyse the intra-industry and inter-industry relationships between VAHU and financial performance (as measured by return on assets, revenue growth and headline earnings per share) and market performance (as measured by market-to-book ratios and total share return) in companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Of the financial year-ends falling in the period 31 December 2001 to 30 June 2011, 1765 company years were covered, relating to 390 companies listed on the Main Board and ALT-X. Company size, leverage, industry and return on equity were held as control factors. The same financial data was used to assess the median growth in VAHU over the period under review. The market value-book value gap of listed companies in South Africa was found to have increased from 2001 to 2011, while human capital efficiency declined. Human capital efficiency has almost no effect on current or future market performance in South Africa. Higher human capital efficiency has a positive effect on current returns generated by any asset – tangible or intangible. Higher headline earnings per share is concurrently associated with higher human capital efficiency in almost every industry. Higher revenue growth is contemporaneously associated with higher human capital efficiency in all industries, except those which are consumer-driven. In consumer-driven industries, human capital efficiency is not a driver for revenue growth, but is still associated with higher profitability. The longer-term effect of human capital efficiency on corporate performance in South Africa is more unclear than its immediate effect. The findings of the study highlight the commercial implications of the degree of industrial action and poor basic education in South Africa – a working population that is poorly educated, with the paradox of wages that are low in relation to the cost of living, yet which are becoming too high in relation to the level of output the workers produce. The results pose a compelling argument for improving the quality of education in South Africa, as well as for employer-driven skills development and employee training.
- ItemAn industry analysis of the power of human capital for corporate performance : evidence from South Africa(University of Pretoria, 2015) Morris, CarlaEven in industrialised emerging economies, the value-generating competencies of a workforce, known as its human capital efficiency, are a key resource for commercial success. The objective of this research is to empirically investigate the relationship between human capital efficiency (as measured by value-added human capital) and the financial and market performance of companies listed on the Main Board and Alternative Exchange (ALT-X) of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Return on assets, revenue growth and headline earnings per share were used as financial performance indicators; while market-to-book ratio and total share return were used to measure market performance. Multivariate regressions were performed, with panel data covering 390 companies in the financial, basic materials, consumer services, consumer goods, industrial and technology industries from 2001 to 2011. First, human capital efficiency was found to have no effect on the market performance of listed companies in South Africa. Secondly, higher human capital efficiency was found to result in the extraction of greater returns from both tangible and intangible assets in all industries. Thirdly, higher profitability was found to be associated with higher human capital efficiency in almost every industry in South Africa, with the exception of the technology industry, where human capital efficiency was found to be independent of headline earnings per share. Finally, higher revenue growth was found to be positively associated with human capital efficiency in those industries which are not consumer-driven. In the consumer-driven industries, human capital efficiency contributes to bottom line profitability even though it is not a driver for revenue growth. Overall, the results of this study confirm that human capital efficiency enhances a company’s financial performance, whether it be through a greater capacity for production and service delivery, tighter cost controls or better use of company resources. Management in all South African industries are encouraged to develop the value-creating abilities of their employees through employer-driven personnel enrichment and training programs and by incentivising workers to pursue further education.