Browsing by Author "Morland, Gail"
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- ItemThe morphology and ecology of the Carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae) (Zeller) in citrus orchards of the Western Cape, South Africa(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2015-03) Morland, Gail; Addison, Pia; Geertsema, H.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Conservation Ecology and Entomology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phyticitinae) became known initially as a Mediterranean pest of stored commodities such as pods of the Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua) and dates, but became a pest of phytosanitary concern in South Africa when recorded in 1974 as a pest of citrus in the Citrusdal area in the Western Cape. Since then it has been a pest of questionable concern to the citrus industry. In its larval stage the Carob moth is often confused with that of the False Codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), presenting a problem when contaminated fruit exports are intercepted at ports of entry. The aim of this study was thus to establish some guidelines for the development of an integrated pest management programme, which will enable growers to more effectively manage Carob moth infestations as well as to present morphological detail to facilitate definite identification of the Carob moth in all of its life stages. This was achieved by collating and screening all available literature, ranging from obscure historical to modern texts, to arrive at a clear understanding of key morphological features of use to classify the Carob moth from ordinal to the species level. These features were then used and supplemented to produce a detailed morphological study of the Carob moth’s life cycle. Morphological detail was then condensed into a user-friendly key based on and restricted to the most distinguishing characteristics to aid the identification of the Carob moth and the False Codling moth and to point out morphological characteristics separating the two species. A field study was also carried out in the Western Cape to determine the Carob moth’s seasonal cycle within local citrus orchards. This was determined by using a pheromone based trapping system and a set protocol for damage assessment by actively monitoring for two growing seasons. A pheromone lure preference trial was conducted in all areas of study to assess two commercially available lures. The outcomes of this study aim towards a better understanding of the nomenclatorial and morphological history of the Carob moth, as well as serving as a user friendly morphological identification key. The field results showed a clear seasonal cycle history of the Carob moth within citrus orchards of the Western Cape, closely following the phenology of the citrus tree. A lure preference was recorded for only one of the study areas. The Carob moth was found to be a minor pest, compared to False Codling moth, and presented more of an economic threat in certain areas with suitable hosts. A longer study should be undertaken to ascertain factors affecting the sporadic nature of the pest.