Browsing by Author "Moodley, K."
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- ItemCould human challenge studies for COVID-19 vaccines be justified in South Africa?(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2021-03) Moodley, K.; Maasdorp, E.; Rennie, S.Although human challenge studies (HCSs) have been widely employed in vaccine development for malaria, dengue, typhoid and cholera, the role of this research design in COVID-19 remains controversial. While the potential social value of HCSs in the context of a pandemic is clear, bioethicists are divided on the ethics, given that effective treatment for COVID-19 has eluded us to date. While compelling ethics arguments have been offered on both sides of the debate, scientific and regulatory complexities may not have been fully appreciated. Furthermore, accelerated development of efficacious vaccine candidates in traditional clinical trials has diluted some of the arguments in favour of HCSs. In low- and middle-income country settings, including South Africa, the need for robust patient care conditions for the conduct of HCSs, coupled with considerations such as perceptions of risk, consent processes, remuneration, vaccine hesitancy, fear of exploitation and access to vaccines, makes HCSs challenging to justify.
- ItemHard choices : ethical challenges in phase 1 of COVID-19 vaccine roll-out in South Africa(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2021-03) Moodley, K.; Blockman, M.; Pienaar, D.; Hawkridge, A. J.; Meintjes, J.; Davies, M.-A.; London, L.Access to COVID-19 vaccines has raised concerns globally. Despite calls for solidarity and social justice during the pandemic, vaccine nationalism, stockpiling of limited vaccine supplies by high-income countries and profit-driven strategies of global pharmaceutical manufacturers have brought into sharp focus global health inequities and the plight of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as they wait in line for restricted tranches of vaccines. Even in high-income countries that received vaccine supplies first, vaccine roll-out globally has been fraught with logistic and ethical challenges. South Africa (SA) is no exception. Flawed global institutional strategies for vaccine distribution and delivery have undermined public procurement platforms, leaving LMICs facing disproportionate shortages necessitating strict criteria for vaccine prioritisation. In anticipation of our first consignment of vaccines, deliberations around phase 1 roll-out were intense and contentious. Although the first phase focuses on healthcare personnel (HCP), the devil is in the detail. Navigating the granularity of prioritising different categories of risk in healthcare sectors in SA is complicated by definitions of risk in personal and occupational contexts. The inequitable public-private divide that characterises the SA health system adds another layer of complexity. Unlike other therapeutic or preventive interventions that are procured independently by the private health sector, COVID-19 vaccine procurement is currently limited to the SA government only, leaving HCP in the private sector dependent on central government allocation. Fair distribution among tertiary, secondary and primary levels of care is another consideration. Taking all these complexities into account, procedural and substantive ethical principles supporting a prioritisation approach are outlined. Within the constraints of suboptimal global health governance, LMICs must optimise progressive distribution of scarce vaccines to HCP at highest risk.
- ItemIsolation and quarantine in South Africa during COVID-19 : draconian measures or proportional response(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2020-04-23) Moodley, K.; Obasa, A. E.; London, L.In the midst of an unprecedented public health crisis, extraordinary containment measures must be implemented. These include both isolation and quarantine, either on a voluntary basis or enforced. In the transition from voluntary to mandatory isolation, conflicts arise at the intersection of ethics, human rights and the law. The Siracusa Principles adopted by the United Nations Economic and Social Council in 1985 and enshrined in international human rights legislation and guidelines specify conditions under which civil liberties may be infringed. In order for isolation processes in South Africa to claim legitimacy, it is important that these principles as well as national laws and constitutional rights are embedded in state action.
- ItemTargeting mothers and selling men what they do not want : a response to "Missed opportunities for circumcision of boys"(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2017) Sidler, D.; Earp, B. D.; Van Niekerk, Anton A.; Moodley, K.; Kling, S.No abstract available