Browsing by Author "Mohamed, Mohammed Naweed"
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- ItemBreeding for improved biomass yield in triticale(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2020-03) Mohamed, Mohammed Naweed; Botes, Willem; Strauss, Johann; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Genetics.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack ex. A. Camus, AABBRR, 2n=6x=42) is the first manmade wheat developed through distant hybridization between rye [Secale cereale, RR, 2n=2x=14] and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD, 2n=6x=42). Triticale combines the qualities of its parents such as high degree of pest and disease resistance and potential to produce high yield gains when cultivated under drought and acid soil conditions. These and other characteristics sparked the attention paid to the crop. Triticale is being largely studied for its dual functionality, which includes its ability to serve as a grazing crop by producing biomass yields which are highly competitive with other forages and its ability to be used for grain production. Believed to be rich in fibre, producing large quantities of biomass material and requiring reduced amounts of management, this crop has the potential to be regarded as a high potential alternative to be included into crop rotations to supplement feedstocks. A multilocation research study was conducted over two years of which selected triticale entries were evaluated with a selection of barley, oats and rye crops as well as evaluated against advanced breeding triticale entries. A two-stage biomass sampling approach was utilised, sampling at 30 cm plant height (GS29-31) or milk stage and during the soft dough growth stage (GS69-71). Statistical analyses were conducted via Agrobase software, in which a General linear model approach was done with a randomised complete block design. A Nearest Neighbour Analysis (NNA) was conducted as well for increased accuracy. Triticale entries that were ranked among the best producers in terms of biomass yield during 2016 were included in 2017, whilst entries that were ranked the best during 2017 were further evaluated. Triticale on average produced a 1 000 kg ha-1 of biomass yield during the first cutting, indicative of its potential to offer grazing material and being superior to its other competitors in most cases. Within the soft dough stage biomass yields exceeded 12 000 kg ha-1. Heritability was measured among the trials for the trait of dry matter yield, with heritability values ranging from 0.14 to 0.88 across the trials during soft dough. The CV reported for the trials ranged from 7.95% to 24.8%. Among the top performing entries in terms of biomass yield at the end of the second year of the study, five oats, one barley and eight triticale entries were selected and analysed for nutritional value. The nutritional parameters analysed included ash, crude protein, fibre, fat, moisture and dry matter content. Certain triticale entries were among the top ranked entries in terms of both biomass yield as well as nutritional value. Through this study the hypothesis which considered triticale having high potential for consideration as an alternative crop to be included on rotations, is accepted. The entries "AgBeacon", "Snel", "US2017", "US2018" and "17USTRITEL020" have been selected potential crossing parents to be included into a formal breeding programme aimed at improving biomass yield. The need for further research to be conducted for further improvement of triticale is clear from this study. Further research aimed at increasing biomass yield of triticale as well as nutritional value will aid a greater uptake and utilization of the crop in the industry.