Browsing by Author "McAllister, Tim A."
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- ItemThe scope for manipulating the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of beef : a review(BioMed Central, 2015-06-24) Vahmani, Payam; Mapiye, Cletos; Prieto, Nuria; Rolland, David C.; McAllister, Tim A.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.; Dugan, Michael E. R.Since 1950, links between intake of saturated fatty acids and heart disease have led to recommendations to limit consumption of saturated fatty acid-rich foods, including beef. Over this time, changes in food consumption patterns in several countries including Canada and the USA have not led to improvements in health. Instead, the incidence of obesity, type II diabetes and associated diseases have reached epidemic proportions owing in part to replacement of dietary fat with refined carbohydrates. Despite the content of saturated fatty acids in beef, it is also rich in heart healthy cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, and can be an important source of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in populations where little or no oily fish is consumed. Beef also contains polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products, including vaccenic and rumenic acids, which have been shown to have anticarcinogenic and hypolipidemic properties in cell culture and animal models. Beef can be enriched with these beneficial fatty acids through manipulation of beef cattle diets, which is now more important than ever because of increasing public understanding of the relationships between diet and health. The present review examines recommendations for beef in human diets, the need to recognize the complex nature of beef fat, how cattle diets and management can alter the fatty acid composition of beef, and to what extent content claims are currently possible for beef fatty acids.
- ItemSubcutaneous adipose fatty acid profiles and related rumen bacterial populations of steers fed red clover or grass hay diets containing flax or sunflower-seed(PLoS, 2014-08-05) Petri, Renee M.; Mapiye, Cletos; Dugan, Mike E. R.; McAllister, Tim A.Steers were fed 70∶30 forage∶concentrate diets for 205 days, with either grass hay (GH) or red clover silage (RC), and either sunflower-seed (SS) or flaxseed (FS), providing 5.4% oil in the diets. Compared to diets containing SS, FS diets had elevated (P<0.05) subcutaneous trans (t)-18:1 isomers, conjugated linoleic acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Forage and oilseed type influenced total n-3 PUFA, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA) and total non-conjugated diene biohydrogenation (BH) in subcutaneous fat with proportions being greater (P<0.05) for FS or GH as compared to SS or RC. Of the 25 bacterial genera impacted by diet, 19 correlated with fatty acids (FA) profile. Clostridium were most abundant when levels of conjugated linolenic acids, and n-3 PUFA's were found to be the lowest in subcutaneous fat, suggestive of their role in BH. Anerophaga, Fibrobacter, Guggenheimella, Paludibacter and Pseudozobellia were more abundant in the rumen when the levels of VA in subcutaneous fat were low. This study clearly shows the impact of oilseeds and forage source on the deposition of subcutaneous FA in beef cattle. Significant correlations between rumen bacterial genera and the levels of specific FA in subcutaneous fat maybe indicative of their role in determining the FA profile of adipose tissue. However, despite numerous correlations, the dynamics of rumen bacteria in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid and synthesis of PUFA and FA tissue profiles require further experimentation to determine if these correlations are consistent over a range of diets of differing composition. Present results demonstrate that in order to achieve targeted FA profiles in beef, a multifactorial approach will be required that takes into consideration not only the PUFA profile of the diet, but also the non-oil fraction of the diet, type and level of feed processing, and the role of rumen microbes in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid.