Browsing by Author "Mbhenyane, X. G."
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- ItemDietary patterns and food behaviours of pregnant youth : a survey in the Polokwane Local Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa(Avens Publishing Group, 2018) Bopape, M. M.; Alberts, M.; Mbhenyane, X. G.Youth pregnancy continues to be a public health concern in South Africa, while nutrition during the first thousand days has become a focus of child and maternal focus and interventions. The study aimed to determine the food behaviours and dietary patterns of pregnant youth in the Polokwane Local Municipality of Limpopo province. It was a descriptive, exploratory and quantitative study. The study was conducted at five randomly selected primary health care clinics in the Polokwane Local Municipality, Limpopo province and pregnant youth aged between fifteen and twenty one years were recruited from these clinics. Sociodemographic data were collected using a validated questionnaire and dietary data were collected using a repeated twenty four hour recall and selected food frequency questionnaire. Blood was also collected to determine serum levels for iron, folate and vitamin B12. The food frequency questionnaire only included foods that are high in iron, folate and vitamin B12 as well as those food items that can enhance or inhibit iron absorption. Pregnant youth had an average of two meals per day, with breakfast being the most commonly skipped meal. There was generally less snacking as compared to studies conducted in urban areas. The nutrient intake was less than 67% of the estimated average requirements for energy, iron, folate, calcium and vitamin C and Vitamin B12. The diet was predominantly cereal-based, with a very low intake of fruit, vegetables and animal products.
- ItemEffect of a nutrition education programme on nutritional status of children aged 3 - 5 years in Limpopo Province, South Africa(Health and Medical Publishing Group, 2015-08) Mushaphi, Lindelani Fhumudzani; Dannhauser, A.; Walsh, C. M.; Mbhenyane, X. G.; Van Rooyen, F. C.Background. Globally, the prevalence of chronic and acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency is high in young children, especially in developing countries. Nutrition education is an important intervention to address these challenges. Objective. To determine the nutritional (anthropometric and micronutrient) status of children aged 3 - 5 years at baseline and post intervention. Methods. A pre-test–post-test control group design was chosen, which included eight villages (four villages in the experimental group (E); four villages in the control group (C)). The Nutrition Education Intervention Programme (NEIP) comprised ten topics emphasising healthy eating, hygiene and sanitation. Results. At baseline, 15% (E) - 22.4% (C) of children were stunted. Very few children were underweight in both groups (E = 2.5%; C = 8.2%) and only 2.5% of children were wasted in the E group at baseline. At baseline, about a third of children in both groups (E = 38.5%; C = 30.8%) had marginal vitamin A status (100 - 199.9 µg/L), while <10% in the E group (E = 7.7%) had vitamin A deficiency (<100 µg/L). According to the categories for indicators of iron status, the number of children who were in the ‘adequate’ category for serum iron, serum ferritin, serum transferrin and percentage transferrin saturation did not change in both groups at postintervention assessment. In both groups, nutritional status of children (both anthropometric and blood variables) did not change significantly following intervention. Conclusion. The nutrition intervention did not have a significant effect on indicators of nutritional status, possibly owing to its short duration (12 months) and the fact that food supplementation was not included.
- ItemEffects of rising food prices on household food security on femaleheaded households in Runnymede Village, Mopani District, South Africa(MedPharm Publications, 2016) Mkhawani, K.; Motadi, S. A.; Mabapa, N. S.; Mbhenyane, X. G.; Blaauw, ReneeBackground: Rising food prices can have a devastating effect on the health of poor households by making it more difficult for them to afford basic food baskets. Although South Africa is food secure as a nation, it does not mean that every household is able to access nutritionally adequate food. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effects of rising food prices on people’s perceptions and coping strategies regarding household food security. Setting: Sixty femaleheaded households were selected from 250 households in Runnymede Village in the Greater Tzaneen Local Municipality, Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa. Design: A descriptive and exploratory study was conducted using quantitative methods by means of an administered, structured questionnaire. The accessible population was femaleheaded households residing in Runnymede Village. Participants representing 60 femaleheaded households were purposively selected from the 250 households. Open and closed-ended questions were used to collect the data. Results: The majority (58%) of participants indicated that their eating habits had changed owing to rising food prices. Approximately 60% of the participants indicated that they bought food in bulk as a shortterm strategy to cope with rising food prices. Approximately 50% had a vegetable garden to alleviate food unavailability, and harvested for subsistence to meet non-food expenses. The majority (57%) of participants converted to buying cheaper brands, such as generic store brands. In addition, rising food prices made high quality food scarce for poorer households, forcing them to resort to cheaper or less nutritious foods. Conclusion: Rising food prices had a negative impact on poor, femaleheaded households in Runnymede Village.
- ItemThe impact of a nutrition education programme on feeding practices of caregivers with children aged 3 to 5 years in rural Limpopo Province, South Africa(Co-published by Medpharm Publications, NISC (Pty) Ltd and Taylor & Francis Group, 2017) Mushaphi, L. F.; Dannhauser, A.; Walsh, C. M.; Mbhenyane, X. G.; Van Rooyen, F. C.Objective: To determine the impact of nutrition education on feeding practices of caregivers with children aged 3 to 5 years at baseline and post intervention. Methodology: A pre-test–post-test control group design was chosen using eight villages (four villages in the experimental group (E) and four villages in the control group (C)). The nutrition education intervention programme (NEIP) comprised ten topics emphasising healthy eating, hygiene and sanitation. Results: Majority of children in both the experimental and control groups were given three meals or more per day, including starchy and protein rich foods at baseline and post intervention. The median carbohydrates and protein intake in both groups was adequate when compared to the Estimated Average Requirements/Recommended Dietary Allowance (EAR/RDA), though median energy intake was inadequate. Even before intervention, the majority of children ate indigenous foods. Despite this, the intake of some indigenous foods did improve significantly in the experimental group, but not in the control group (termites; mopani worms; indigenous vegetables including black jack, spider flower and wild jute; and, indigenous fruits including baobab fruit and pawpaw). On the other hand, the intake of mixed traditional dishes as well as the intake of the indigenous foods, stinging nettle, meldar, wild peach, pineapple, dovhi, tshigume and thophi, increased significantly in both the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: Due to the fact that most children in both groups consumed most food items, including indigenous foods, before the intervention, improvements were only seen in a few feeding practices in the experimental group after the NEIP.
- ItemNutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition Programme in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa(Health and Medical Publishing Group, 2017) Malongane, F.; Mbhenyane, X. G.Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, andprovide incomes to families.Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) inCapricorn Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Methods. The setting was 18 randomly selected schools on the NSNP in Capricorn District. The total sample comprised 602 randomlyselected schoolchildren from grades 4 to 7, aged 10 (26.6%), 11 (35.4%) and 12 (35.4%). Socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometricmeasurements, dietary patterns and school attendance were determined. Children were interviewed to assess their nutritional status using avalidated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations (SDs) and ranges were used for socioeconomic parametersand dietary patterns, and z-scores for anthropometric data.Results. The results showed that boys (9.5%) and girls (7.8% ) were underweight. The prevalence of stunting in the sample was 11.3% forboys and 7.4% for girls, whereas boys (3.6%) and girls (4.2%)were wasted, with az-score of –2 SD. School attendance was good.Conclusion. The nutritional status of most subjects in the study was within the acceptable range as indicated by the assessment of growthusing anthropometric measurements.