Browsing by Author "Mathewson, Steven"
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- ItemThe complementation of ראה in Biblical Hebrew(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Mathewson, Steven; Van der Merwe Christo, H. J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study is an investigation of the complementation of the verb ראה in Biblical Hebrew. The problem it addresses is the lack of a coherent account of the various complements selected by this verb, as well as the semantic or pragmatic effects of these various complements. This investigation begins with a survey of previous lexical studies of the verb ראה and establishes that the verb’s most basic sense is perception with the eyes and that this meaning regularly extends metaphorically to cognition—that is, understanding or realization. Then, this study utilizes an eclectic collection of insights from Cognitive Linguistics as the framework for investigating a data set that includes the 1,303 occurrences of the verb ראה in the Hebrew Bible. The concepts that have shaped this linguistic framework include complementation, embodiment, intersubjectivity, information state, and sensory perception. A key feature of the investigation is the grouping and analysis of the verb ראה and the complements it selects within the following categories: • ראה + Object (with or without the object marker אֵת ) • ראה + Ø (no explicit complement) • ראה + כִּי (that) • ראה + וְהִּנֵה (and behold) • ראה + אֲשֶׁר (how) • ראה + prepositions (בְְּ, in/into; עַל, on/upon, etc.) • ראה + other particles (interrogatives, etc.) This investigation yielded several results. First, it determined how the collocation of the verb ראה with various kinds of complements effects meaning. For example, ראה + כִּי constructions signify a mental perception of a proposition which can even be derived from means other than eyesight. Second, it determined that the most prototypical construction involving the verb ראה in the Hebrew Bible is ראה + Object (50.5% of the total instances) and that its prototypical sense is the perception of an object or event with one’s eyes. Third, it established various metaphorical extensions and metonymic paths that move from this sense to others. For example, ראה can extend metaphorically from visual perception with an intentional look to meanings like “inspect” or “choose.” An example of a metonymic path is see → see and encounter → make an effort to see and encounter (= visit). Fourth, this study provided insight into unique expressions associated with the verb ראה . For example, lift up her/his/my eyes signifies an intentional effort to acquire knowledge. Fifth, this study considered how the complementation of other BH verbs of sight and perception compare with the complementation of ראה . For example, the other sight verbs occur with much less frequency and always signify intentional acts of looking. By contrast, ראה frequently denotes the visual stimulation that happens automatically in bodily experience.