Browsing by Author "Mapiye, Cletos"
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- ItemBioavailability and bioefficacy of hemp by-products in ruminant meat production and preservation: a review.(2020) Semwogerere, Farouk; Katiyatiya, Chenaimoyo L. F.; Chikwanha, Obert C.; Mapiye, CletosPlant by-products obtained from agro-industrial processes require valorisation to demonstrate their potential for enhancing animal health, meat production, and shelf life extension. One example is the fast-growing hemp industry, which produces seeds, leaves, seed oil, and cake. Studies on the nutritional value of hempseed cake have shown it can be a valuable source of protein in ruminant diets. However, there is limited documentation on the bioavailability and bioefficacy of hemp phytochemicals for improving ruminant health, production, and extending meat shelf life. The current review provides an overview of existing information on nutrient and phytochemical composition of hemp by-products, their bioavailability, and bioefficacy, and explores current limitations and prospects regarding their valorisation.
- ItemCitrus and winery wastes : promising dietary supplements for sustainable ruminant animal nutrition, health, production, and meat quality(MDPI, 2018-10-16) Tayengwa, Tawanda; Mapiye, CletosCitrus and grapes are the most widely grown fruits globally, with one-third of total production used for juice and wine making. The juice and winemaking processes generate large quantities of solid organic wastes including citrus pulp and grape pomace. These fruit wastes pose serious economic, environmental, and social challenges, especially in low-to-middle-income countries due to financial, technological, and infrastructural limitations. They are, however, rich in valuable compounds which can be utilized in the ruminant livestock industry as novel, economical, and natural sources of cellulose, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and phytochemicals, which have nutritional, anthelmintic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. Despite citrus and grape fruit wastes having such potential, they remain underexploited by the livestock industry in low-to-middle-income countries owing to lack of finance, skills, technology, and infrastructure. Inclusion of these fruit wastes in ruminant diets could combine the desirable effects of enhancing animal nutrition, health, welfare, production, and meat quality attributes with the prevention of challenges associated with their disposal into the environment. The current review explores the valorization potential of citrus and winery wastes as dietary supplements to sustainably enhance ruminant animal nutrition, health, welfare, production, and meat quality.
- ItemFood preservative capabilities of grape (vitis vinifera) and clementinemandarin (citrus reticulata) by-products extracts in South Africa(MDPI, 2019-03-22) Pfukwa, Trust M.; Fawole, Olaniyi A.; Manley, Marena; Gouws, Pieter A.; Opara, Umezuruike Linus; Mapiye, CletosThe drive towards sustainable food systems coupled with increased consumer sophistication have prompted innovation in waste valorization. Grape and citrus processing by-products, abundant in the Mediterranean and tropical regions, respectively, are expanding and are sustainable sources of bioactive phytochemicals that can be used as natural preservatives for foods. Phytochemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of extracts from grape pomace (GPE), seeds (GSE), and clementine mandarin peel and pulp (MPE) grown in South Africa were analyzed. Total phenols and carotenoids were highest in GPE followed by GSE and MPE (p ≤ 0.05). Flavonoids and anthocyanins were higher (p ≤ 0.05) in GPE and GSE compared to MPE. The GSE had the highest proanthocyanidins content followed by GPE and MPE (p ≤ 0.05). Ascorbic acid was only detected in MPE, which also had the highest titratable acidity and lowest pH values (p ≤ 0.05). The GSE had the highest antioxidant potency composite index followed by GPE and MPE (p ≤ 0.05). The order of antimicrobial activity of the extracts was MPE > GSE > GPE (p ≤ 0.05). Current findings show that GSE is a potential antioxidant while MPE holds promise as an antimicrobial for the food industry.
- ItemGenetic traits of relevance to sustainability of smallholder sheep farming systems in South Africa(MDPI, 2017) Molotsi, Annelin; Dube, Bekezela; Oosting, Simon; Marandure, Tawanda; Mapiye, Cletos; Cloete, Schalk; Dzama, KennedySustainable livestock production is important to ensure continuous availability of resources for future generations. Most smallholder livestock farming systems in developing countries have been perceived to be environmentally, socially and economically unsustainable. Farming with livestock that is robust and adaptable to harsh environments is important in developing countries especially in semi-arid and arid environments. This review discusses the different sheep farming systems employed by smallholder farmers and associated sustainability problems facing them. The review also gives an overview of sustainability indicators and limitations to the sustainability for the different smallholder sheep production systems in South Africa. It is argued that genetic diversity is important for sustainability and needs to be maintained in sheep for sustainable production and reproduction performance. The application of traditional breeding and genomics to ensure sustainable production is explored. Animal breeding approaches, specifically genomics can be applied to improve areas of environmental sustainability of smallholder sheep farming systems but must be targeted to the specific production environments, challenges, and opportunities of smallholder production. The genetic traits important for sustainability, the role of genomics in improving these traits and linking these genetic traits to different farming systems in South Africa are discussed.
- ItemA gross margin analysis for Nguni cattle farmers in Limpopo Province, South Africa(Public Library of Science, 2021-06-24) Nkadimeng, Mapule Valencia; Makombe, Godswill; Mapiye, Obvious; Mapiye, Cletos; Oluwatay, Isaac; Dzama, Kennedy; Mojapelo, Cedric; Mollel, Naftali; Ngambi, Jones; Mautjana, Madimetja Human; Vasa, LaszloFactors such as increases in population, urbanization, growth in per capita income and changes in consumer taste and preferences are causing gradual increases in livestock product consumption and demand. South Africa is addressing this predicted increase in livestock products demand by commercializing smallholder livestock producers. The Limpopo Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Nguni Cattle Development Project is an example of such effort. The economic performance of these efforts needs to be evaluated. We use gross margin analysis to evaluate the performance of the Limpopo IDC Nguni Cattle Development Project. Additionally, we use regression analysis to identify factors influencing gross margins. Our results indicate that although smallholders show potential to commercialize, they lack commercial farming experience and require that a strong extension support system be used as one of the strategies to improve profitability. We also noted that individual farmers were more profitable than group farmers. Multiple regression analysis shows that three variables could be used to stimulate gross margin among the Limpopo IDC Nguni Cattle Development Project farmers. These are herd size, distance to market and farm size. Since farm size is a given, policy should focus on assisting farmers to build their herds and to have better access to markets.
- ItemImproving beef hamburger quality and fatty acid profiles through dietary manipulation and exploitation of fat depot heterogeneity(BioMed Central, 2014-11) Mapiye, Cletos; Aalhus, Jennifer L.; Vahmani, Payam; Rolland, David C.; McAllister, Timothy A.; Block, Hushton C.; Uttaro, Bethany; Proctor, Spencer D.; Dugan, Michael E. R.Background: Hamburger is the most consumed beef product in North America, but lacks in nutritional appeal due to its high fat content and high proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Objectives of the present study were to improve the FA profiles of hamburgers made with perirenal fat (PRF) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) when feeding steers different diets along with examining differences in sensory attributes and oxidative stability. Diets included a control diet containing 70:30 red clover silage: barley based concentrate, a diet containing sunflower-seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% wheat dried distillers’ grain with solubles (DDGS-15) or 30% DDGS (DDGS-30). Hamburgers were made from triceps brachii and either PRF or SCF (80:20 w/w). Results Perirenal fat versus SCF hamburgers FA had 14.3% more (P <0.05) 18:0, 11.8% less cis (c)9-18:1 (P <0.05), and 1.82% more total trans (t)-18:1 mainly in the form of t11-18:1. During sensory evaluation, PRF versus SCF hamburgers had greater (P <0.05) mouth coating, but the difference was less than one panel unit. Examining effects of steer diet within PRF hamburgers, feeding the SS compared to the control diet increased (P <0.05) t-18:1 by 2.89% mainly in the form of t11-18:1, feeding DGGS-15 diet led to no further changes (P >0.05), but feeding DDGS-30 diet reduced the proportions of (P <0.05) of t-18:1 chiefly t11-18:1. Feeding SS and DDGS diets had small but significant (P <0.05) effects on hamburger sensory attributes and oxidative stability. Conclusions Feeding high-forage diets including SS and 15% DDGS, and taking advantage of the FA heterogeneity between fat depots offers an opportunity to differentially enhance beef hamburgers with 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products (i.e., t11-18:1) with potential human health benefits without compromising their sensory attributes and oxidative stability during retail display.
- ItemIndigenous slaughter techniques : effects on meat physico-chemical characteristics of Nguni goats(MDPI, 2021-03-18) Mdletshe, Zwelethu Mfanafuthi; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, CletosTo improve goat meat quality in rural communities, it is important to evaluate the effects of indigenous slaughter methods used by resource-limited farmers when performing traditional ceremonies on the meat physico-chemical characteristics. The current study assessed the effects of the meat physico-chemical characteristics of Nguni goats slaughtered with the transverse neck incision (TNI), suprasternal notch piercing (SNP) and the under shoulder blade piercing at the chest floor point of elbow (CFP) to the direction of the heart methods. Thirty Nguni weathers were randomly assigned to three slaughter treatments (10 goats/treatment). Musculus longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was sampled at post-mortem for physico-chemical characteristic measurements. Meat from wethers slaughtered with the SNP method had greater ultimate pH values than meat from wethers slaughtered with TNI and CFP slaughter methods. Wethers slaughtered with the SNP method had lower meat redness (a*), yellowness (b*), and chroma (C*) values than those slaughtered with TNI and CFP slaughter methods. Goat slaughter method did not affect meat drip loss, water holding capacity, cooking loss and shear force. Overall, Nguni wethers slaughtered with the TNI and CFP methods produced chevon with fresher meat appearance than those slaughtered using the SNP method.
- ItemLivelihood, food and nutrition security in Southern Africa : what role do indigenous cattle genetic resources play?(MDPI, 2020) Mapiye, Obvious; Chikwanha, Obert C.; Makombe, Godswill; Dzama, Kennedy; Mapiye, CletosOf the 345 million people in the Southern African Development Community (SADC), 30.6% are severely food insecure, 8% malnourished and 50% live with less than US $1 per day, respectively. Livelihood, food and nutrition security have, therefore, become key priorities for the SADC region in response to these complex challenges. Given that 70% of the SADC population directly rely on agriculture for food, nutrition and income, sustained agricultural productivity may play an important role in achieving livelihood, food and nutrition security in the region. Being an important part of the agri-food system of marginalised communities in the region, cattle have great potential to contribute to the goal of reducing food and nutrition insecurity. The region has a population size of about 64 million cattle of which 75% of the population is kept under the smallholder farming systems, and primarily composed of indigenous tropical breeds. Most indigenous cattle breeds are, however, either undergoing rapid genetic dilution or at risk of extinction. At the same time, their environments, production and marketing systems are experiencing high rates of change in time and space. More importantly, indigenous cattle breeds in the region are undervalued. This makes it uncertain that future systems will have the adapted cattle breeds required for optimal livelihoods, food and nutrition security. To this end, the promotion of sustainable use of indigenous cattle for livelihood, food and nutrition security in the SADC region is strongly recommended.
- ItemPolyunsaturated fatty acid, volatile and sensory profiles of beef from steers fed citrus pulp or grape pomace(Elsevier, 2020-11-28) Tayengwa, Tawanda; Chikwanha, Obert C.; Neethling, Jeannine; Dugan, Michael E. R.; Mutsvangwa, Timothy; Mapiye, CletosThe present study compared the effects of feeding dried grape pomace (DGP) or citrus pulp (DCP) at 150 g/kg dry matter compared to a control diet on major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), volatile and sensory profiles of beef. Feeding DGP or DCP diets to Angus steers for 90 d increased the proportions of C18:2n-6, C20:4n-6, C18:3n-3, total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 and n-6 PUFA in muscle. Control-fed beef had greater concentrations of C18:1n-9, total aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols compared to DCP and DGP. Feeding DGP and DCP diets produced less tender beef than control. Overall, finishing steers on diets containing DGP or DCP compared to control increased proportions of total CLA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA, and reduced concentrations of aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols, but did not affect beef sensory attributes except for a slight reduction in tenderness.
- ItemPork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids(MDPI, 2015-12) Dugan, Michael E. R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juarez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.
- ItemThe scope for manipulating the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of beef : a review(BioMed Central, 2015-06-24) Vahmani, Payam; Mapiye, Cletos; Prieto, Nuria; Rolland, David C.; McAllister, Tim A.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.; Dugan, Michael E. R.Since 1950, links between intake of saturated fatty acids and heart disease have led to recommendations to limit consumption of saturated fatty acid-rich foods, including beef. Over this time, changes in food consumption patterns in several countries including Canada and the USA have not led to improvements in health. Instead, the incidence of obesity, type II diabetes and associated diseases have reached epidemic proportions owing in part to replacement of dietary fat with refined carbohydrates. Despite the content of saturated fatty acids in beef, it is also rich in heart healthy cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, and can be an important source of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in populations where little or no oily fish is consumed. Beef also contains polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products, including vaccenic and rumenic acids, which have been shown to have anticarcinogenic and hypolipidemic properties in cell culture and animal models. Beef can be enriched with these beneficial fatty acids through manipulation of beef cattle diets, which is now more important than ever because of increasing public understanding of the relationships between diet and health. The present review examines recommendations for beef in human diets, the need to recognize the complex nature of beef fat, how cattle diets and management can alter the fatty acid composition of beef, and to what extent content claims are currently possible for beef fatty acids.
- ItemSericea lespedeza (Lespedeza juncea var. sericea) for sustainable small ruminant production : feed, helminth suppressant and meat preservation capabilities(Elsevier, 2020-10-10) Mahachi, Leo N.; Chikwanha, Obert C.; Katiyatiya, Chenaimoyo L. F.; Marufu, Munyaradzi C.; Aremu, Adeyemi O.; Mapiye, CletosSmall ruminants significantly contribute towards livelihood, food and nutrition security for people living in semiarid low-to-middle-income countries. However, their productivity is largely constrained by feed shortages, prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and postharvest meat losses. The current review explores the possibility of using sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza juncea var. sericea) as a natural helminth suppressant, feed ingredient and meat preservative for improving small ruminant health, meat production and shelf life. Sericea lespedeza has moderate contents of crude protein, fibre, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, and diverse composition of physiologically active substances such as condensed tannins, sterols and flavanols from which it derives nutritional, anti-bloat, helminth suppressant, antimicrobial and antioxidative properties. Overall, the present review demonstrates the potential of feeding sericea lespedeza to small ruminants as a sustainable means of controlling GIN and enhancing meat production and shelf life, while also reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, more research is required to determine optimal feeding strategies and doses for reducing GHG emissions while improving health, meat production and quality of small ruminants.
- ItemSouthern African indigenous fruits and their byproducts : prospects as food antioxidants(Elsevier, 2020) Pfukwa, Trust M.; Chikwanha, Obert C.; Katiyatiya, Chenaimoyo L. F.; Fawole, Olaniyi A.; Manley, Marena; Mapiye, CletosThe discourse regarding plant-based preservatives for food application has generally revolved around extracts from commercial fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices with indigenous fruits (IFs) on the periphery, with little investment into their valorisation. While being important food sources at community level, IFs and their byproducts are also incorporated into medicinal remedies, combating various diseases. Their ethnomedicinal usage indicates potent bioactive profile that alleviate effects of oxidative stress, which accompany disease in vivo. This is supported by in vitro antioxidant activity of the IFs and their byproducts. As such, the current review explores the potential of bioprospecting extracts from nine IFs and their byproducts as food antioxidants. Evidence presented shows that IFs have high content of bioactive compounds further translating to high antioxidant activity. Research gaps in information concerning in vitro bioactivity warrant further research to provide impetus for valorisation and food application of IFs.
- ItemStrategies for sustainable use of indigenous cattle genetic resources in southern Africa(MDPI, 2019-11-12) Mapiye, Cletos; Chikwanha, Obert C.; Chimonyo, Michael; Dzama, KennedyIndigenous cattle breeds are the most important livestock species in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region owing to their role in human food, nutrition, income, and social security. Despite the role of these breeds in the household and national economies, they are currently underutilised, their productivity remains low, and populations are faced with extinction. In addition, there are insufficient measures taken to secure their present and future value. The current review highlights strategies for sustainable use of indigenous cattle genetic resources in the region, including the use of novel production and marketing practices, women and youth empowerment, and development of the appropriate capacity building, legislative, and policy structures. At present, the lack of coordination among the different stakeholders still poses a challenge to the implementation of these strategies. To this end, partnerships, collaboration, and stakeholders’ participation are recommended to effectively implement strategies for sustainable use of indigenous cattle breeds.
- ItemSubcutaneous adipose fatty acid profiles and related rumen bacterial populations of steers fed red clover or grass hay diets containing flax or sunflower-seed(PLoS, 2014-08-05) Petri, Renee M.; Mapiye, Cletos; Dugan, Mike E. R.; McAllister, Tim A.Steers were fed 70∶30 forage∶concentrate diets for 205 days, with either grass hay (GH) or red clover silage (RC), and either sunflower-seed (SS) or flaxseed (FS), providing 5.4% oil in the diets. Compared to diets containing SS, FS diets had elevated (P<0.05) subcutaneous trans (t)-18:1 isomers, conjugated linoleic acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Forage and oilseed type influenced total n-3 PUFA, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA) and total non-conjugated diene biohydrogenation (BH) in subcutaneous fat with proportions being greater (P<0.05) for FS or GH as compared to SS or RC. Of the 25 bacterial genera impacted by diet, 19 correlated with fatty acids (FA) profile. Clostridium were most abundant when levels of conjugated linolenic acids, and n-3 PUFA's were found to be the lowest in subcutaneous fat, suggestive of their role in BH. Anerophaga, Fibrobacter, Guggenheimella, Paludibacter and Pseudozobellia were more abundant in the rumen when the levels of VA in subcutaneous fat were low. This study clearly shows the impact of oilseeds and forage source on the deposition of subcutaneous FA in beef cattle. Significant correlations between rumen bacterial genera and the levels of specific FA in subcutaneous fat maybe indicative of their role in determining the FA profile of adipose tissue. However, despite numerous correlations, the dynamics of rumen bacteria in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid and synthesis of PUFA and FA tissue profiles require further experimentation to determine if these correlations are consistent over a range of diets of differing composition. Present results demonstrate that in order to achieve targeted FA profiles in beef, a multifactorial approach will be required that takes into consideration not only the PUFA profile of the diet, but also the non-oil fraction of the diet, type and level of feed processing, and the role of rumen microbes in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid.