Browsing by Author "Maphiri, Stella"
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- ItemBioenergy use and food preparation practices of two communities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa(Energy Research Centre, 2010) Chirwa, Paxie W.; Ham, Cori; Maphiri, Stella; Balmer, MarlettA study was undertaken in two communities that use firewood in the Keiskammahoek area of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa to understand their behaviour with regard to energy use during food preparation as well as the extent of practising efficient cooking habits. The results showed that despite the high level of electrification, firewood was used in most households (B 60%) for cooking while electricity was mostly used (B 90%) for lighting. Firewood is also preferred for cooking food that takes a long time to prepare, while more convenient sources of energy such as electricity is used for short periods of cooking and re-heating of food. Secondary sources of energy used for cooking included paraffin, dung, leaves and twigs. The study found that there was some deliberate use of energy saving techniques in both communities, although limited and not necessarily practiced with a view to saving energy. Less than half of the respondents soaked hard grains and beans before cooking; while all of them cut food into smaller pieces before cooking commenced. A third of respondents had utensils ready before cooking commenced in one village while two thirds placed utensils and food together before they commenced food preparations in the other village. Pots were covered with lids and water was added in small amounts as required. The heat from fire was not monitored, but fires were extinguished after use. The greatest potential for improvement exists around cooking appliances; where all households were found to be using threelegged pots on open fires when cooking with biomass energy. Open fires are highly inefficient and the use of efficient biomass cook stoves would increase efficiency. It is recommended that in order to reduce the use of biomass-derived energy consumption and expenditure in low-income households, the use of multiple energy sources and portable energy efficient firewood stoves should be promoted. In addition, there should be an aggressive dissemination of information on further processing of fuelwood into forms that can easily be stored and used; and various forms of pre-treatment of hard foods.
- ItemForest biomass energy use and perceptions on tree planting and community woodlots in households of two rural communities in Keiskammahoek, Eastern Cape, South Africa(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2009-12) Maphiri, Stella; Chirwa, P. W.; Kleynhans, T.; Ham, Cori; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Agrisciences. Dept. of Forest and Wood Science.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Access to secure energy supplies is widely acknowledged as a critical foundation for sustainable development. Rural households are highly dependent on forest resources for their livelihoods including energy needs. Fuelwood is a non-timber forest product (NTFP) that accounts for one of the main uses of forests and woodlands. Despite substantial household electrification programmes in South Africa, the use of fuelwood as a source of energy continues. This study aimed to analyze fuelwood use patterns of two rural villages situated in Keiskammahoek in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa in order to understand the perceptions of the community members regarding communal tree planting. The study was conducted in two rural villages, namely, Cata and Tshoxa. A total of 120 respondents from both villages were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires to collect data on the use of fuelwood and evaluate their perception on tree planting. The study revealed that up to 77% of the people living in Keiskammahoek used fuelwood as a major source of energy and that women were the main collectors and users of fuelwood. In the rural Cata, food is cooked in three-legged pots over open fires while in Tshoxa food is mainly cooked over paraffin and electric stoves. The respondents from both villages did not have energy conservation measures in place and improved wood stoves have not been introduced in this region. The local community of Cata was also involved in tree planting on a community level, while both villages were also involved in tree planting at a household level. The study concluded that fuelwood was the most important product from the forests in both rural areas and natural forests were a valuable source of other NTFPs; most notably indigenous fruit products. In addition most of the fuelwood was used for cooking and heating purposes but that there was no deliberate use of energy efficient methods. On tree planting, the study showed that communities from both rural villages have an interest in planting trees around their households; with preference for fruit and shade trees.