Browsing by Author "Mamushi, Mokadi Peggy"
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- ItemAdipose tissue as a possible therapeutic target for polyphenols : a case for Cyclopia extracts as anti-obesity nutraceuticals(Elsevier, 2019) Jack, Babalwa U.; Malherbe, Christiaan J.; Mamushi, Mokadi Peggy; Muller, Christo J. F.; Joubert, Elizabeth; Louwa, Johan; Pheiffer, CarmenENGLISH ABSTRACT: Obesity is a significant contributor to increased morbidity and premature mortality due to increasing the risk of many chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. Lifestyle modifications such as energy restriction and increased physical activity are highly effective first-line treatment strategies used in the management of obesity. However, adherence to these behavioral changes is poor, with an increased reliance on synthetic drugs, which unfortunately are plagued by adverse effects. The identification of new and safer anti-obesity agents is thus of significant interest. In recent years, plants and their phenolic constituents have attracted increased attention due to their health-promoting properties. Amongst these, Cyclopia, an endemic South African plant commonly consumed as a herbal tea (honeybush), has been shown to possess modulating properties against oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and obesity. Likewise, several studies have reported that some of the major phenolic compounds present in Cyclopia spp. exhibit anti-obesity effects, particularly by targeting adipose tissue. These phenolic compounds belong to the xanthone, flavonoid and benzophenone classes. The aim of this review is to assess the potential of Cyclopia extracts as an anti-obesity nutraceutical as underpinned by in vitro and in vivo studies and the underlying cellular mechanisms and biological pathways regulated by their phenolic compounds.
- ItemInvestigating the ameliorative potential of Aspalathus linearis and Cyclopia intermedia against lipid accumulation, lipolysis, oxidative stress and inflammation(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2020-03) Mamushi, Mokadi Peggy; Pheiffer, Carmen; Jack, B. U.; Du Plessis, S. S.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. Dept. of Biomedical Sciences: Medical Physiology.Background Despite the availability of several treatment regimens, obesity continues to be one of the greatest health challenges of the 21st century. In recent years, plant polyphenols have attracted increasing attention as nutraceuticals that are able to prevent or treat obesity and its co-morbidities. However, the first-line screening of these compounds is hampered by the shortage of in vitro experimental models that mimic the complex pathophysiology of obesity (excess lipid accumulation, basal lipolysis, inflammation and oxidative stress) in vivo. The aim of this study was two-fold. Firstly, establish a 3T3-L1 adipocyte in vitro model that more closely mimics obesity in vivo, and secondly to investigate the ameliorative properties of Aspalathus linearis, Cyclopia intermedia and their major polyphenols against these conditions. Methods For the experimental model, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated in 5.5 mM, 25 mM or 33 mM glucose concentrations for 7 or 14 days. Lipid accumulation, basal lipolysis, oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial activity and gene expression were assessed using Oil Red O staining, glycerol release, 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate fluorescence to quantify reactive oxygen species, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 secretion, the 3- [4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The ameliorative effects of Aspalathus linearis (Afriplex GRTTM) and Cyclopia intermedia (CPEF) against these conditions were investigated by acute and chronic treatment of the optimised experimental model with various concentrations of these plant extracts and their major polyphenol Aspalathin and Mangiferin respectively. Results Collectively lipid accumulation, basal lipolysis, oxidative stress, inflammation and expression of associated genes were higher after differentiation in 33 mM for 14 days compared to lower glucose concentrations and 7 days, thus these conditions were selected as the experimental model. Neither acute nor chronic treatment with 0.1 to 100 µg/ml of Aspalathus linearis and Cyclopia intermedia, and 0.1 to 100 µM of Aspalathin and Mangiferin significantly decreased lipid content. However, all treatments decreased basal lipolysis and increased mitochondrial activity. Conclusion Differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes in 33 mM glucose for 14 days increased basal lipolysis, oxidative stress and inflammation compared to lower glucose concentrations and differentiation for 7 days. Aspalathus linearis, Cyclopia intermedia, Aspalathin and Mangiferin ameliorated the increased basal lipolysis under these conditions. This study showed that differentiation in 33 mM glucose for 14 days may offer potential as an experimental model that more closely mimics obesity in vivo and may thus improve first-line screening for anti-obesity therapeutics. Aspalathus linearis, Cyclopia intermedia and their major polyphenol Aspalathin and Mangiferin, respectively may have potential as antilipolytic agents that are able to ameliorate obesity-associated basal lipolysis.