Browsing by Author "Lund, Crick"
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- ItemBarriers to the participation of people with psychosocial disability in mental health policy development in South Africa : a qualitative study of perspectives of policy makers, professionals, religious leaders and academics(BioMed Central, 2013-03) Kleintjes, Sharon; Lund, Crick; Swartz, LeslieAbstract Background This paper outlines stakeholder views on environmental barriers that prevent people who live with psychosocial disability from participating in mental health policy development in South Africa. Method Fifty-six semi-structured interviews with national, provincial and local South African mental health stakeholders were conducted between August 2006 and August 2009. Respondents included public sector policy makers, professional regulatory council representatives, and representatives from non-profit organisations (NPOs), disabled people’s organisations (DPOs), mental health interest groups, religious organisations, professional associations, universities and research institutions. Results Respondents identified three main environmental barriers to participation in policy development: (a) stigmatization and low priority of mental health, (b) poverty, and (c) ineffective recovery and community supports. Conclusion A number of attitudes, practices and structures undermine the equal participation of South Africans with psychosocial disability in society. A human rights paradigm and multi-system approach is required to enable full social engagement by people with psychosocial disability, including their involvement in policy development.
- ItemBurden of non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, 1990–2017 : results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017(Elsevier, 2019-10) Gouda, Hebe N.; Charlson, Fiona; Sorsdahl, Katherine; Ahmadzada, Sanam; Ferrari, Alize J.; Erskine, Holly; Leung, Janni; Santamauro, Damian; Lund, Crick; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Harris, Meredith; Achoki, Tom; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Stein, Dan J.; Whiteford, HarveyBackground: Although the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa continues to be dominated by infectious diseases, countries in this region are undergoing a demographic transition leading to increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). To inform health system responses to these changing patterns of disease, we aimed to assess changes in the burden of NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa from 1990 to 2017. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 to analyse the burden of NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs)—with crude counts as well as all-age and age-standardised rates per 100000 population—with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We examined changes in burden between 1990 and 2017, and differences across age, sex, and regions. We also compared the observed NCD burden across countries with the expected values based on a country’s Socio-demographic Index. Findings: All-age total DALYs due to NCDs increased by 67·0% between 1990 (90·6 million [95% UI 81·0–101·9]) and 2017 (151·3 million [133·4–171·8]), reflecting an increase in the proportion of total DALYs attributable to NCDs (from 18·6% [95% UI 17·1–20·4] to 29·8% [27·6–32·0] of the total burden). Although most of this increase can be explained by population growth and ageing, the age-standardised DALY rate (per 100000 population) due to NCDs in 2017 (21757·7 DALYs [95% UI 19 377·1–24380·7]) was almost equivalent to that of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases (26491·6 DALYs [25165·2–28129·8]). Cardiovascular diseases were the second leading cause of NCD burden in 2017, resulting in 22·9 million (21·5–24·3) DALYs (15·1% of the total NCD burden), after the group of disorders categorised as other NCDs (28·8 million [25·1–33·0] DALYs, 19·1%). These categories were followed by neoplasms, mental disorders, and digestive diseases. Although crude DALY rates for all NCDs have decreased slightly across sub-Saharan Africa, age-standardised rates are on the rise in some countries (particularly those in southern sub-Saharan Africa) and for some NCDs (such as diabetes and some cancers, including breast and prostate cancer). Interpretation: NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa are posing an increasing challenge for health systems, which have to date largely focused on tackling infectious diseases and maternal, neonatal, and child deaths. To effectively address these changing needs, countries in sub-Saharan Africa require detailed epidemiological data on NCDs.
- ItemChallenges and opportunities for implementing integrated mental health care : a district level situation analysis from five low- and middle-income countries(PLoS, 2014-02-18) Hanlon, Charlotte; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Kathree, Tasneem; Murhar, Vaibhav; Shrivasta, Sanjay; Medhin, Girmay; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Fekadu, Abebaw; Shidhaye, Rahul; Petersen, Inge; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Thornicroft, Graham; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick; Breuer, Erica; De Silva, Mary; Prince, MartinBackground: Little is known about how to tailor implementation of mental health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to the diverse settings encountered within and between countries. In this paper we compare the baseline context, challenges and opportunities in districts in five LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda) participating in the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME). The purpose was to inform development and implementation of a comprehensive district plan to integrate mental health into primary care. Methods: A situation analysis tool was developed for the study, drawing on existing tools and expert consensus. Cross-sectional information obtained was largely in the public domain in all five districts. Results: The PRIME study districts face substantial contextual and health system challenges many of which are common across sites. Reliable information on existing treatment coverage for mental disorders was unavailable. Particularly in the low-income countries, many health service organisational requirements for mental health care were absent, including specialist mental health professionals to support the service and reliable supplies of medication. Across all sites, community mental health literacy was low and there were no models of multi-sectoral working or collaborations with traditional or religious healers. Nonetheless health system opportunities were apparent. In each district there was potential to apply existing models of care for tuberculosis and HIV or non-communicable disorders, which have established mechanisms for detection of drop-out from care, outreach and adherence support. The extensive networks of community-based health workers and volunteers in most districts provide further opportunities to expand mental health care. Conclusions: The low level of baseline health system preparedness across sites underlines that interventions at the levels of health care organisation, health facility and community will all be essential for sustainable delivery of quality mental health care integrated into primary care.
- ItemCourse of perinatal depressive symptoms among South African women : associations with child outcomes at 18 and 36 months(Springer Nature, 2019) Garman, Emily Claire; Cois, Annibale; Tomlinson, Mark; Rotheram‑Borus, Mary Jane; Lund, CrickENGLISH ABSTRACT: Purpose Latent modelling was used to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms among low-income perinatal women in South Africa. Predictors of trajectories and the association of trajectories with child outcomes were assessed. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data collected among women living in Cape Town settlements (N = 446). Participants were eligible if pregnant and 18 years or older, and included in the analysis if allocated to the control arm (routine perinatal care). Participants were excluded in case of non-singleton birth and baby death. Follow-up assessments were at 2 weeks, 6-, 18-, and 36-month postpartum. Trajectories of depressive symptoms were based on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores until 18-month postpartum, using latent class growth analysis. Child physical, cognitive, socioemotional, and behavioural outcomes were assessed at 18 and/or 36 months. Univariate and multivariate regressions were used to identify predictors of trajectories and differences in child outcomes. Results Four trajectories were identified: chronic low (71.1%), late postpartum (10.1%), early postpartum (14.4%), and chronic high (4.5%). Low social support, unwanted pregnancy, and risky drinking were associated with the chronic high trajectory; unemployment and HIV-positive status with the early postpartum trajectory; and intimate partner violence with the late postpartum trajectory. Weight-to-length and weight-for-age z-scores at 18 months, and weight-for-age z-scores, length-for-age z-scores, emotional symptom, and peer problem scores at 36 months differed across trajectories. Conclusions Severe depressive symptoms in postpartum period have a lasting effect on child physical and socio-emotional outcomes. Multiple screening throughout pregnancy and 1-year postpartum is essential.
- ItemEpidemiology of major depressive disorder in South Africa (1997 – 2015): a systematic review protocol(BMJ Publishing Group, 2016) Nglazi, Mweete D.; Joubert, Jane D.; Stein, Dan J.; Lund, Crick; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Vos, Theo; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Roomaney, Rifqah A.; Muhwava, Lorrein S.; Bradshaw, DebbieENGLISH SUMMARY : Introduction: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disease and disability globally and in South Africa. Epidemiological data for MDD are essential to estimate the overall disease burden in a country. The objective of the systematic review is to examine the evidence base for prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, severity, case fatality and excess mortality of MDD in South Africa from 1997 to 2015. Methods and analysis: We will perform electronic searches in PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus and other bibliographical databases. Articles published between January 1997 and December 2015 will be eligible for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes will be prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, severity, case fatality and excess mortality of MDD. The secondary outcomes will be risk factors and selected populations for MDD. If appropriate, a meta-analysis will be performed. If a meta-analysis is not possible, the review findings will be presented narratively and in tables. Subgroup analyses will be conducted with subgroups defined by population group, rural/urban settings and study designs, if sufficient data are available.
- ItemHealth systems context(s) for integrating mental health into primary health care in six Emerald countries : a situation analysis(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2017-01-05) Mugisha, James; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Hanlon, Charlotte; Petersen, Inge; Lund, Crick; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Ahuja, Shalini; Shidhaye, Rahul; Mntambo, Ntokozo; Alem, Atalay; Gureje, Oye; Kigozi, FredBackground: Mental, neurological and substance use disorders contribute to a significant proportion of the world’s disease burden, including in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In this study, we focused on the health systems required to support integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC) in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda. Methods: A checklist guided by the World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) was developed and was used for data collection in each of the six countries participating in the Emerging mental health systems in low and middle-income countries (Emerald) research consortium. The documents reviewed were from the following domains: mental health legislation, health policies/plans and relevant country health programs. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results: Three of the study countries (Ethiopia, Nepal, Nigeria, and Uganda) were working towards developing mental health legislation. South Africa and India were ahead of other countries, having enacted recent Mental Health Care Act in 2004 and 2016, respectively. Among all the 6 study countries, only Nepal, Nigeria and South Africa had a standalone mental health policy. However, other countries had related health policies where mental health was mentioned. The lack of fully fledged policies is likely to limit opportunities for resource mobilization for the mental health sector and efforts to integrate mental health into PHC. Most countries were found to be allocating inadequate budgets from the health budget for mental health, with South Africa (5%) and Nepal (0.17%) were the countries with the highest and lowest proportions of health budgets spent on mental health, respectively. Other vital resources that support integration such as human resources and health facilities for mental health services were found to be in adequate in all the study countries. Monitoring and evaluation systems to support the integration of mental health into PHC in all the study countries were also inadequate. Conclusion: Integration of mental health into PHC will require addressing the resource limitations that have been identified in this study. There is a need for up to date mental health legislation and policies to engender commitment in allocating resources to mental health services.
- ItemImpact of district mental health care plans on symptom severity and functioning of patients with priority mental health conditions : the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) cohort protocol(BioMed Central, 2018-03-06) Baron, Emily C.; Rathod, Sujit D.; Hanlon, Charlotte; Prince, Martin; Fedaku, Abebaw; Kigozi, Fred; Jordans, Mark; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Medhin, Girmay; Murhar, Vaibhav; Nakku, Juliet; Patel, Vikram; Petersen, Inge; Selohilwe, One; Shidhaye, Rahul; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick; De Silva, MaryBackground: The Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) sought to implement mental health care plans (MHCP) for four priority mental disorders (depression, alcohol use disorder, psychosis and epilepsy) into routine primary care in five low- and middle-income country districts. The impact of the MHCPs on disability was evaluated through establishment of priority disorder treatment cohorts. This paper describes the methodology of these PRIME cohorts. Methods: One cohort for each disorder was recruited across some or all five districts: Sodo (Ethiopia), Sehore (India), Chitwan (Nepal), Dr. Kenneth Kaunda (South Africa) and Kamuli (Uganda), comprising 17 treatment cohorts in total (N = 2182). Participants were adults residing in the districts who were eligible to receive mental health treatment according to primary health care staff, trained by PRIME facilitators as per the district MHCP. Patients who screened positive for depression or AUD and who were not given a diagnosis by their clinicians (N = 709) were also recruited into comparison cohorts in Ethiopia, India, Nepal and South Africa. Caregivers of patients with epilepsy or psychosis were also recruited (N = 953), together with or on behalf of the person with a mental disorder, depending on the district. The target sample size was 200 (depression and AUD), or 150 (psychosis and epilepsy) patients initiating treatment in each recruiting district. Data collection activities were conducted by PRIME research teams. Participants completed follow-up assessments after 3 months (AUD and depression) or 6 months (psychosis and epilepsy), and after 12 months. Primary outcomes were impaired functioning, using the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS), and symptom severity, assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (depression), the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUD), and number of seizures (epilepsy). Discussion: Cohort recruitment was a function of the clinical detection rate by primary health care staff, and did not meet all planned targets. The cross-country methodology reflected the pragmatic nature of the PRIME cohorts: while the heterogeneity in methods of recruitment was a consequence of differences in health systems and MHCPs, the use of the WHODAS as primary outcome measure will allow for comparison of functioning recovery across sites and disorders.
- ItemKhayelitsha, South Africa: Effects on antenatal and postnatal outcomes in an individual randomised controlled trial(2019) Lund, Crick; Schneider, Marguerite; Garman, Emily C; Davies, Thandihe study's objective was to determine the effectiveness of a task-sharing psychological treatment for perinatal depression using non-specialist community health workers. A double-blind individual randomised controlled trial was conducted in two antenatal clinics in the peri-urban settlement of Khayelitsha, Cape Town. Adult pregnant women who scored 13 or above on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression rating Scale (EPDS) were randomised into the intervention arm (structured six-session psychological treatment) or the control arm (routine antenatal health care and three monthly phone calls). The primary outcome was response on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) at three months postpartum (minimum 40% score reduction from baseline) among participants who did not experience pregnancy or infant loss (modified intention-to-treat po-pulation) (registered on Clinical Trials: NCT01977326). Of 2187 eligible women approached, 425 (19.4%) screened positive on the EPDS and were randomised; 384 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis (control: n = 200; intervention: n = 184). There were no significant differences in response on the HDRS at three months postpartum between the intervention and control arm. A task-sharing psychological treatment was not effective in treating depression among women living in Khayelitsha, South Africa. The findings give cause for reflection on the strategy of task-sharing in low-resource settings.
- ItemMaternal mental health in primary care in five low- and middle-income countries : a situational analysis(BioMed Central, 2016-02-16) Baron, Emily C.; Hanlon, Charlotte; Mall, Sumaya; Honikman, Simone; Breuer, Erica; Kathree, Tasneem; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Nakku, Juliet; Lund, Crick; Medhin, Girmay; Patel, Vikram; Petersen, Inge; Shrivastava, Sanjay; Tomlinson, MarkBackground: The integration of maternal mental health into primary health care has been advocated to reduce the mental health treatment gap in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study reports findings of a cross-country situation analysis on maternal mental health and services available in five LMICs, to inform the development of integrated maternal mental health services integrated into primary health care. Methods: The situation analysis was conducted in five districts in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda, as part of the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME). The analysis reports secondary data on the prevalence and impact of priority maternal mental disorders (perinatal depression, alcohol use disorders during pregnancy and puerperal psychosis), existing policies, plans and services for maternal mental health, and other relevant contextual factors, such as explanatory models for mental illness. Results: Limited data were available at the district level, although generalizable data from other sites was identified in most cases. Community and facility-based prevalences ranged widely across PRIME countries for perinatal depression (3–50 %) and alcohol consumption during pregnancy (5–51 %). Maternal mental health was included in mental health policies in South Africa, India and Ethiopia, and a mental health care plan was in the process of being implemented in South Africa. No district reported dedicated maternal mental health services, but referrals to specialised care in psychiatric units or general hospitals were possible. No information was available on coverage for maternal mental health care. Challenges to the provision of maternal mental health care included; limited evidence on feasible detection and treatment strategies for maternal mental disorders, lack of mental health specialists in the public health sector, lack of prescribing guidelines for pregnant and breastfeeding women, and stigmatising attitudes among primary health care staff and the community. Conclusions: It is difficult to anticipate demand for mental health care at district level in the five countries, given the lack of evidence on the prevalence and treatment coverage of women with maternal mental disorders. Limited evidence on effective psychosocial interventions was also noted, and must be addressed for mental health programmes, such as PRIME, to implement feasible and effective services.
- ItemPartnerships in a global mental health research programme — the example of PRIME(Springer, 2019) Breuer, Erica; Hanlon, Charlotte; Bhana, Arvin; Chisholm, Dan; De Silva, Mary; Fekadu, Abebaw; Honikman, Simone; Jordans, Mark; Kathree, Tasneem; Kigozi, Fred; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Marx, Maggie; Medhin, Girmay; Murhar, Vaibhav; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Patel, Vikram; Petersen, Inge; Prince, Martin; Raja, Shoba; Rathod, Sujit D.; Shidhaye, Rahul; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Thornicroft, Graham; Tomlinson, Mark; Wolde-Giorgis, Tedla; Lund, CrickCollaborative research partnerships are necessary to answer key questions in global mental health, to share expertise, access funding and influence policy. However, partnerships between low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and high-income countries have often been inequitable with the provision of technical knowledge flowing unilaterally from high to lower income countries. We present the experience of the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME), a LMIC-led partnership which provides research evidence for the development, implementation and scaling up of integrated district mental healthcare plans in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda. We use Tuckman’s first four stages of forming, storming, norming and performing to reflect on the history, formation and challenges of the PRIME Consortium. We show how this resulted in successful partnerships in relation to management, research, research uptake and capacity building and reflect on the key lessons for future partnerships.
- ItemPRIME : a programme to reduce the treatment gap for mental disorders in five low- and middle-income countries(Public Library of Science, 2012-12-27) Lund, Crick; Tomlinson, Mark; De Silva, Mary; Fekadu, Abebaw; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Petersen, Inge; Bhana, Arvin; Kigozi, Fred; Prince, Martin; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kakuma, Ritsuko; McDaid, David; Saxena, Shekhar; Chisholm, Dan; Raja, Shoba; Kippen-Wood, Sarah; Honikman, Simone; Fairall, Lara; Patel, VikramThe majority of people living with mental disorders in low- and middle-income countries do not receive the treatment that they need. There is an emerging evidence base for cost-effective interventions, but little is known about how these interventions can be delivered in routine primary and maternal health care settings.The aim of the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) is to generate evidence on the implementation and scaling up of integrated packages of care for priority mental disorders in primary and maternal health care contexts in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda.PRIME is working initially in one district or sub-district in each country, and integrating mental health into primary care at three levels of the health system: the health care organisation, the health facility, and the community.The programme is utilising the UK Medical Research Council complex interventions framework and the ‘‘theory of change’’ approach, incorporating a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and impact of these packages.PRIME includes a strong emphasis on capacity building and the translation of research findings into policy and practice, with a view to reducing inequities and meeting the needs of vulnerable populations, particularly women and people living in poverty.
- ItemPsychology training directors’ reflections on evidence-based practice in South Africa(SA ePublications, 2012-03) Kagee, Ashraf; Lund, CrickDespite its importance in the international arena, the evidence-based movement appears to have had little impact among South African clinical and counseling psychologists. We interviewed 13 of the 18 directors of psychology training programmes to understand the extent to which these programmes were rooted in an evidence-based approach to psychological practice; how important directors thought it was to emphasise an evidence-based approach in psychology training; and how students were taught to use research to inform their ongoing practice as clinical or counselling psychologists. Directors expressed a range of positions including opposition to evidence-based practice (EBP), support for EBP, and equivocality about EBP. Those who were opposed to EBP based their opposition on a “critical” approach to evidence, epistemological and ontological differences with the notion of EBP, and the conflation of theoretical orientation with EBP. Concerns were also raised in relation to areas of psychological need that lacked a research base, cultural factors that did not fit well with EBP, and different viewpoints on what constituted evidence. However, among several training directors, EBP was considered essential, particularly in light of the need to offer cost-effective services in an under-resourced setting like South Africa. These results are discussed in the context of the international evidence-based movement in mental health. Three recommendations flow from our research, namely, that the Health Professions Council of South Africa engage formally and vigorously with EBP for psychological interventions; that the Psychological Society of South Africa (PSYSSA) place the matter of EBP squarely on the organisational agenda; and that a standardised accreditation of clinical and counselling psychology training programmes be developed according to locally developed criteria for assessing EBP.
- ItemResponsible governance for mental health research in low resource countries(Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2011-11) Yasamy, M. Taghi; Maulik, Pallab K.; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick; Van Ommeren, Mark; Saxena, ShekharBetween 13% and 49% of the world’s population develop neuropsychiatric disorders at some point in their life. More and more evidence indicates that mental disorders and problems are common in all countries studied, and supports earlier projections that the burden of mental health problems is increasing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as well. Most people with these disabling conditions now live in LMICs, but at most one in five receives treatment and care. In order to narrow this gap, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Mental Health GAP Action Programme (mhGAP) with the objective of scaling up services for priority mental disorders using evidence-based interventions. In 2009, evidence profiles were compiled based on a systematic review of the literature for interventions that were to form part of the mhGAP Intervention Guide.
- ItemTask sharing of a psychological intervention for maternal depression in Khayelitsha, South Africa : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial(BioMed Central, 2014-11) Lund, Crick; Schneider, Marguerite; Davies, Thandi; Nyatsanza, Memory; Honikman, Simone; Bhana, Arvin; Bass, Judith; Bolton, Paul; Dewey, Michael; Joska, John; Kagee, Ashraf; Myer, Landon; Petersen, Inge; Prince, Martin; Stein, Dan J.; Thornicroft, Graham; Tomlinson, Mark; Alem, Atalay; Susser, EzraBackground: Maternal depression carries a major public health burden for mothers and their infants, yet there is a substantial treatment gap for this condition in low-resourced regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. To address this treatment gap, the strategy of “task sharing” has been proposed, involving the delivery of interventions by non-specialist health workers trained and supervised by specialists in routine healthcare delivery systems. Several psychological interventions have shown benefit in treating maternal depression, but few have been rigorously evaluated using a task sharing approach. The proposed trial will be the first randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating a task sharing model of delivering care for women with maternal depression in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this RCT is to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a task sharing counseling intervention for maternal depression in South Africa. Methods/Design: The study is an individual-level two-arm RCT. A total of 420 depressed pregnant women will be recruited from two ante-natal clinics in a low-income township area of Cape Town, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale to screen for depression; 210 women will be randomly allocated to each of the intervention and control arms. The intervention group will be given six sessions of basic counseling over a period of 3 to 4 months, provided by trained community health workers (CHW)s. The control group will receive three monthly phone calls from a CHW trained to conduct phone calls but not basic counseling. The primary outcome measure is the 17-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17). The outcome measures will be applied at the baseline assessment, and at three follow-up points: 1 month before delivery, and 3 and 12 months after delivery. The primary analysis will be by intention-to-treat and secondary analyses will be on a per protocol population. The primary outcome measure will be analyzed using linear regression adjusting for baseline symptom severity measured using the HDRS-17. Discussion: The findings of this trial can provide policy makers with evidence regarding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of structured psychological interventions for maternal depression delivered by appropriately trained and supervised non-specialist CHWs in sub-Saharan Africa. Trial registration: Clinical Trials: (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT01977326, registered on 24/10/2013; Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.pactr.org): PACTR201403000676264, registered on 11/10/2013.
- ItemTreatment contact coverage for probable depressive and probable alcohol use disorders in four low- and middle-income country districts : the PRIME cross-sectional community surveys(Public Library of Science, 2016) Rathod, Sujit D.; De Silva, Mary J.; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Breuer, Erica; Murha, Vaibhav; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Medhi, Girmay; Kigozi, Fred; Shidhaye, Rahul; Fekadu, Abebaw; Jordans, Mark; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, CrickContext: A robust evidence base is now emerging that indicates that treatment for depression and alcohol use disorders (AUD) delivered in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) can be effective. However, the coverage of services for these conditions in most LMIC settings remains unknown. Objective: To describe the methods of a repeat cross-sectional survey to determine changes in treatment contact coverage for probable depression and for probable AUD in four LMIC districts, and to present the baseline findings regarding treatment contact coverage. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional surveys with structured questionnaires, which included validated screening tools to identify probable cases. We defined contact coverage as being the proportion of cases who sought professional help in the past 12 months. Setting: Sodo District, Ethiopia; Sehore District, India; Chitwan District, Nepal; and Kamuli District, Uganda Participants: 8036 adults residing in these districts between May 2013 and May 2014 Main Outcome Measures: Treatment contact coverage was defined as having sought care from a specialist, generalist, or other health care provider for symptoms related to depression or AUD. Results: The proportion of adults who screened positive for depression over the past 12 months ranged from 11.2% in Nepal to 29.7% in India and treatment contact coverage over the past 12 months ranged between 8.1% in Nepal to 23.5% in India. In Ethiopia, lifetime contact coverage for probable depression was 23.7%. The proportion of adults who screened positive for AUD over the past 12 months ranged from 1.7% in Uganda to 13.9% in Ethiopia and treatment contact coverage over the past 12 months ranged from 2.8% in India to 5.1% in Nepal. In Ethiopia, lifetime contact coverage for probable AUD was 13.1%. Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with and contribute to the limited evidence base which indicates low treatment contact coverage for depression and for AUD in LMIC. The planned follow up surveys will be used to estimate the change in contact coverage coinciding with the implementation of district-level mental health care plans.
- ItemWhy does mental health not get the attention it deserves? An application of the Shiffman and Smith framework(Public Livrary of Science (PloS), 2012-02) Tomlinson, Mark R.; Lund, CrickIntroduction - The lifetime prevalence of mental disorders has been estimated to be between 12.2% and 48.6% globally. More than 13% of the global burden of disease for mental disorders is due to neuropsychiatric disorders, and over 70% of this burden lies in low- and middleincome countries. Suicide is one of the leading causes of death globally for all ages. Despite this urden, mental illness has thus far not achieved commensurate visibility, policy attention, or funding, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Shiffman and Smith have developed a framework of analysis that attempts to understand why some global health initiatives are more successful in generating funding and political priority than others. The framework has been applied most prominently to maternal mortality and newborn survival. Global mental health is one initiative that is attempting to garner an increased share of international funding as well as prioritisation by political leaders. In this essay, we will use the Shiffman and Smith framework to demonstrate that while some significant strides have been made, mental health still faces major challenges in establishing itself as a global initiative with meaningful political priority. We will conclude with a discussion of the way forward for the global mental health movement, and make some suggestions about how this aim can be furthered.