Browsing by Author "Lubkoll, Matti"
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- ItemPerformance characteristics of a spiky central receiver air pre-heater (SCRAP)(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2017-03) Lubkoll, Matti; Von Backstrom, T. W.; Harms, T. M.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Engineering. Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering.ENGLISH SUMMARY: A combined cycle concentrating solar power (CSP) plant provides signiﬁcant potential to achieve an eﬃciency increase and an electricity cost reduction compared to current single-cycle plants. A combined cycle CSP system requires a receiver technology capable of eﬀectively transferring heat from concentrated solar irradiation to a pressurized air stream in a gas turbine. The novel spiky central receiver air pre-heater (SCRAP) technology is proposed to provide such a receiver and overcome barriers experienced by developments to date. The SCRAP receiver is a novel metallic receiver technology aimed at preheating an air stream to about 800◦C, either prior to a combustion chamber or alternatively a cascaded secondary non-metallic receiver system, capable of achieving elevated temperatures. The SCRAP receiver is distinguished in shape and functioning from receiver concepts presented to date for the application in Brayton or combined cycles. The receiver is predicted to perform at solar-thermal eﬃciencies exceeding 80%. The geometric design of the receiver achieves a relatively low radiative heat loss, predicted at about 4% – 5%, whereas the relatively large surface results in vulnerability to convective heat losses. The pressure drop was found to be dependent on the geometries selected but relatively low, compared to existing alternative receiver designs, with system pressure drops below 40mbar achievable. A ray-tracing analysis showed that the ﬂux impinging on the absorber assemblies is in its spatial distribution dependent on the solar ﬁeld, more speciﬁc, the heliostat size and design. A thermodynamic model was developed to investigate the performance characteristics of the SCRAP receiver. The developed thermodynamic computer model was veriﬁed against an experimental test setup designed and built at the heat transfer laboratory at Stellenbosch University. Tests with steam heating at nominally 100◦C show good agreement between the experimental results and the modeled predictions, at various air ﬂow rates. Further work on the SCRAP receiver technology is recommended. On the modelingsideworkisproposedondevelopingsolutionsforjetimpingementheat transfer on the spike tip to improve heat transfer while reducing pressure drop. Furtherworkonhelicallyswirledﬁnsissuggestedtocontributetoincreasedheat transfer characteristics. The receiver showed vulnerability towards convective heat losses; further work to better predict and mitigate these is required. Experiments under solar ﬂux or simulated solar ﬂux should further improve understanding of the technology. Cost eﬀective manufacturing processes need to be developed to satisfy economic suitability of the receiver technology.
- ItemA pre-feasibility study of a concentrating solar power system to offset electricity consumption at the Spier Estate(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2011-12) Lubkoll, Matti; Gauche, P.; Brent, Alan C.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Engineering. Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Spier Estate - a wine estate in the Western Cape Province of South Africa - is engaged in a transition towards operating according to the principles of sustainable development. Besides changes in social and other environmental aspects, the company has set itself the goal to be carbon neutral by 2017. To this end, Spier is considering the on-site generation of electricity from renewable energy sources. This study was initiated to explore the technical and economic feasibility of a concentrating solar power plant for this purpose on the estate. The investigation was carried out to identify the most appropriate solar thermal energy technology and the dimensions of a system that fulfils the carbon-offset requirements of the estate. In particular, potential to offset the annual electricity consumption of the currently 5 570 MWh needed at Spier, using a concentrating solar power (CSP) system, was investigated. Due to rising utility-provided electricity prices, and the expected initial higher cost of the generated power, it is assumed that implemented efficiency measures would lead to a reduction in demand of 50% by 2017. However, sufficient suitable land was identified to allow electricity production exceeding today’s demand. The outcome of this study is the recommendation of a linear Fresnel collector field without additional heat storage and a saturated steam Rankine cycle power block with evaporative wet cooling. This decision was based on the system’s minimal impact on the sensitive environment in combination with the highest potential for local development. A simulation model was written to evaluate the plant performance, dimension and cost. The analysis was based on a literature review of prototype system behaviour and system simulations. The direct normal irradiation (DNI) data that was used is based on calibrated satellite data. The result of the study is a levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) of R2.741 per kWh, which is cost competitive to the power provided by diesel generators, but more expensive than current and predicted near-future utility rates. The system contains a 1.8 ha aperture area and a 2.0 MWe power block. Operating the plant as a research facility would provide significant potential for LCOE reduction with R2.01 per kWh or less (favourable funding conditions would allow for LCOE of R1.49 per kWh) appearing feasible, which results in cost competitiveness in comparison a photovoltaic (PV) solution. Depending on tariff development, Eskom rates are predicted to reach a similar level between 2017, the time of commissioning, and the year 2025. The downside is that the plant would not solely serve the purpose of electricity offsetting for Spier, which may result in a reduced amount of electricity that may be generated. Further studies are proposed to refine the full potential of cost reduction by local development and manufacturing as well as external funding. This includes identification of suitable technology vendors for plant construction. An EIA is required to be triggered at an early stage to compensate for its long preparation.