Browsing by Author "Louw, Marli"
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- ItemMetabolic, genetic and physiological responses to SO2 exposure and nutrient-limiting conditions in Brettanomyces bruxellensis(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-04) Louw, Marli; Divol, Benoit; Alexandre, Herve; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Institute for Wine Biotechnology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Brettanomyces bruxellensis has become of increasing interest over the past few decades yet this complex red wine spoilage yeast is still poorly understood and strain variance also leads to the contradictory results reported in literature. This yeast is responsible for the production of phenolic compounds, associated with off-flavours that render wine unpalatable. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is the most commonly used antioxidant and antimicrobial preservative instrumental in the control of spoilage yeasts such as B. bruxellensis. However, its diploid/triploid genome is enriched for genes that provide the yeast a fortuitous advantage, under conditions permissive for growth, with genotype-dependent SO2 tolerance phenotypes observed among numerous strains. This study investigates the metabolic, physiological and genetic responses associated with SO2 exposure. It also explores the environmental cues responsible for the onset of non-SO2 induced morphological characteristics. These morphological characteristics were investigated using fluorescent probes and microscopy in the presence of SO2 and in the absence thereof, in YPD media. Pseudohyphae formation was observed to be a highly strain dependent feature and less pronounced in the presence of 0.6 mg/L molecular SO2. This study also reports on the metabolic response observed over a 3-week period, following exposure to SO2, in a synthetic wine medium. The following metabolites were consistently monitored during the course of the experiment: acetic acid, acetaldehyde, D-glucose and D-fructose. Utilization of sugars was retarded in the presence of SO2 for up to 10 days in the presence of 1.2 mg/L molecular SO2 and overproduction of acetaldehyde was prominent, with a peak at day 10. The study further highlights the expression profiles observed for the SSU1 gene (referring to SO2 tolerance) and the PAD gene (referring to production of volatile compounds) under SO2 induced conditions in SWM, using qRT-PCR. The co-involvement of increased acetaldehyde production and elevated gene expression were indicative of B. bruxellensis yeast adapting to the presence of molecular SO2, allowing survival of this fascinating yeast. Sequencing of the SSU1 and PAD genes suggests the probable existence of different alleles of these genes that could explicate SO2 tolerance and phenolic compound production associated differences among strains of this species.
- ItemTranscriptomics unravels the adaptive molecular mechanisms of Brettanomyces bruxellensis under SO2 stress in wine condition(Elsevier, 2020-03-10) Valdetara, Federica; Skalic, Miha; Fracassetti, Daniela; Louw, Marli; Compagno, Concetta; Du Toit, Maret; Foschino, Roberto; Petrovic, Uros; Divol, Benoit; Vigentini, IleanaSulfur dioxide is generally used as an antimicrobial in wine to counteract the activity of spoilage yeasts, including Brettanomyces bruxellensis. However, this chemical does not exert the same effectiveness on different B. bruxellensis yeasts since some strains can proliferate in the final product leading to a negative sensory profile due to 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol. Thus, the capability of deciphering the general molecular mechanisms characterizing this yeast species’ response in presence of SO2 stress could be considered strategic for a better management of SO2 in winemaking. A RNA-Seq approach was used to investigate the gene expression of two strains of B. bruxellensis, AWRI 1499 and CBS 2499 having different genetic backgrounds, when exposed to a SO2 pulse. Results revealed that sulphites affected yeast culturability and metabolism, but not volatile phenol production suggesting that a phenotypical heterogeneity could be involved for the SO2 cell adaptation. The transcriptomics variation in response to SO2 stress confirmed the strain-related response in B. bruxellensis and the GO analysis of common differentially expressed genes showed that the detoxification process carried out by SSU1 gene can be considered as the principal specific adaptive response to counteract the SO2 presence. However, nonspecific mechanisms can be exploited by cells to assist the SO2 tolerance; namely, the metabolisms related to sugar alcohol (polyols) and oxidative stress, and structural compounds.