Browsing by Author "Koegelenberg, Coenraad Frederik N."
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- ItemEndoscopic lung volume reduction in severe emphysema(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2015) Koegelenberg, Coenraad Frederik N.; Theron, Johan; Bruwer, J. W.; Allwood, Brian W.; Vorster, Morne J.; Von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Dheda, KeertanENGLISH ABSTRACT: Therapeutic options in severe emphysema are limited. Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) refers to bronchoscopically inducing volume loss to improve pulmonary mechanics and compliance, thereby reducing the work of breathing. Globally, this technique is increasingly used as treatment for advanced emphysema with the aim of obtaining similar functional advantages to surgical lung volume reduction, while reducing risks and costs. There is a growing body of evidence that certain well-defined subgroups of patients with advanced emphysema benefit from ELVR, provided that a systematic approach is followed and selection criteria are met. In addition to endobronchial valves, ELVR using endobronchial coils is now available in South Africa. The high cost of these interventions underscores the need for careful patient selection to best identify those likely to benefit from such procedures.
- ItemGuideline for office spirometry in adults, 2012(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2013) Koegelenberg, Coenraad Frederik N.; Swart, Francois; Irusen, Elvis MalcolmBackground. Office spirometry remains an integral part of a comprehensive respiratory evaluation and is used to categorise the nature, severity and progression of respiratory diseases and to measure response to treatment. These updated guidelines are aimed at improving the quality, standardisation and usefulness of office spirometry in South Africa. Recommendations. All equipment should have proof of validation regarding resolution and the system’s linearity (consistency). Moreover, equipment must be calibrated daily and quality controlled. It is also important to have standard operating procedures in place, including the documentation of ambient conditions and infection control measures. Adequate spirometry relies on a competent operator, accurate equipment, standardised operating procedures, quality control and patient co-operation. The indication for spirometry in a particular patient should be unambiguous and should be documented. Subjects should be appropriately prepared for testing, and patient details must be documented. Forced vital capacity (FVC) manoeuvres (either closed or open circuit) must be performed strictly according to guidelines, and strict quality assurance methods should be in place, including acceptability criteria (for any given effort) and repeatability (between efforts). Testing should continue until at least 3 acceptable curves are produced (with 2 fulfilling repeatability criteria). Other indices are derived from these efforts. Conclusion. Test results must be categorised and graded according to current guidelines, taking into account the indication for the test and the appropriateness of reference values.
- ItemValidation of a severity-of-illness score in patients with tuberculosis requiring intensive care unit admission(Health & Medical Publication Group, 2015-05-27) Koegelenberg, Coenraad Frederik N.; Balkema, Cecile A.; Jooste, Ynishia; Taljaard, Jantjie J.; Irusen, Elvis M.Background. There is a paucity of data on the determinants of mortality due to tuberculosis (TB) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Objective. To develop a simple severity-of-illness score for use in patients with TB admitted to an ICU. Methods. A scoring system was generated by retrospectively identifying the four most significant and clinically unrelated predictors of mortality from an existing prospectively collected dataset (January 2012 - May 2013), and combining these with known predictors of poor outcome. Results. Of 83 patients admitted with TB, 38 (45.8%) died in the ICU. The four parameters identified from the retrospective analysis were: (i) HIV co-infection with a CD4 cell count <200/μL; (ii) a raised creatinine level: (iii) a chest radiograph showing diffuse parenchymal infiltrates/miliary pattern; and (iv) absence of TB treatment on admission. These were combined with septic shock and a low arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fractional inspired oxygen (P:F) ratio to generate a six-point severity-of-illness score (one point for each parameter). The scores for survivors were significantly lower than those for non-survivors (mean (standard deviation) 2.27 (1.47) v. 3.58 (1.08); p<0.01). A score of ≥2 was associated with significantly higher mortality than a score of <2 (7.1% v. 46.4%; odds ratio (OR) 15.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.86 - 121.32; p<0.01), whereas a score of ≥3 was associated with a significantly higher mortality than a score of <3 (64.6% v. 20.0%; OR 7.29; 95% CI 2.64 - 20.18; p<0.01). Conclusion. The proposed scoring system identified patients at increased risk of dying from TB in the ICU. Further prospective studies are indicated to validate its use.