Browsing by Author "Kleinhans, Dewald Johannes"
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- ItemStudies in the selective synthesis of bidentate resorcinarene ligands(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2010-03) Kleinhans, Dewald Johannes; Arnott, Gareth E.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Science. Dept. of Chemistry and Polymer Science.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Resorcinarenes are macrocyclic products formed from the condensation of aldehydes (aliphatic or aromatic) and resorcinol and have been used in a wide range of applications since their first synthesis. Applications include: HPLC stationary phases for the separation of pyrimidine bases, racemic drugs and isomers, the selective extractions of lanthanides and actinides, as molecular receptors, catalysis, NMR chiral shift agents, GC separations and as starting materials for the synthesis of macrocyclic compounds (e.g. cavitands and carcerands) to name but a few. The use of resorcinarenes in catalysis is still quite new and unexplored, while catalysis using calixarenes, a related macrocycle, has been widely studied. In this thesis it was attempted to synthesise a C2v symmetric resorcinarene precursor that could be further functionalised to form distal bidentate ligands for coordination to transition metals. These compounds would then ultimately be used in catalytic testing, especially for Pd catalysed C-C bond formation. A dibromo resorcinarene precursor was synthesised starting from resorcinarene, using methodology developed by Shivanyuk. This molecule was functionalised with a small range of different electrophiles using lithium halogen exchange methodology, although low yields were returned for the expected distal resorcinarene compounds. Other methods of functionalisation of the resorcinarene, using an anionic ortho-Fries rearrangement and the reduction of a dinitrile resorcinarene to amine and aldehyde functionalities proved unsuccessful. Using a dithioether resorcinarene a di-nuclear coordination compound was formed with Pd(II). This compound was tested for catalytic activity with a Heck reaction, showing low yields for the coupling of styrene with bromobenzene.
- ItemStudies in the synthesis of benzoxazole compounds(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2015-12) Kleinhans, Dewald Johannes; Arnott, Gareth E.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Science. Dept. of Chemistry and Polymer Science.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Benzoxazoles are an important class of π-electron-excessive, benzene-fused heterocyclic compounds found in natural products and display a wide range of pharmacological applications. It is therefore a widely used starting scaffold for drug and agrochemical discovery programs. Other applications include: chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric reactions, chiral receptors for the resolution of racemic mixtures, fluorescent whitening dyes, various photochromic materials and as ligands for a wide range of catalytic reactions. Due to our interests in resorcinarenes, we came across 4-hydroxybenzoxazoles, a structural motif that has not been explored as potential asymmetric ligands. In this thesis it was attempted to investigate the synthesis, functionalisation and coordination chemistry of these compound class and finally look at a method of synthesising chiral 4-hydroxybenzoxazoles from amino acids. A small library of achiral 4-hydroxybenzoxazoles were synthesised in good yields. These compounds were then reacted with various transition metals, of which only the Pd-salts proved to return any usable compounds. The first structural evidence of the bonding of 4- hydroxybenzoxazoles was recorded from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the coordination compounds that formed. Different coordination modes were recorded, depending on the ligand and the Pd-salt used. The PdCl2 compounds were also tested for catalytic activity with a Heck reaction, showing good conversions for the reaction between iodobenzene and styrene to form stilbene. Further examination pointed to the ligands playing an insignificant role in the reaction and the products possibly due to only the PdCl2’s reactivity. During this period it was also attempted to functionalise the phenol group with P(III) groups and repeat the coordination and catalytic studies. Efforts to synthesise these compounds were not successful, with oxidation of the P(III) to P(V) groups or degradation of these compounds. Efforts to synthesise these via phosphorous protection, utilising BH3 or the in situ trapping of the compounds with transition metals, were also not successful. During the trapping experiments the phosphinite and Pd-salt formed a re-arranged product that is a known and useful catalyst on its own. Finally a small library of chiral benzoxazoles and 4-hydroxybenzoxazoles were synthesised, starting from amino acids and utilising a Mitsunobu reaction to perform the ring closing. Antimicrobial tests with these compounds did not return any appreciable results.