Browsing by Author "Joska, John"
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- ItemFactors affecting specialist psychiatry training in South Africa : bullying during specialist psychiatric training?(2021) Beath, Natalie; Moxley, Karis; Subramaney, Ugasvaree; Zingela, Zukiswa; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Joska, John; Kotzé, Carla; Seedat, Soraya, 1966-As many of us served as members of the Council of Psychiatrists, Colleges of Medicine of South Africa, for the triennium 2017 - 2020, we were keen to understand how workplace experiences and supervision could affect training and examination outcomes in South African (SA) centres. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study of registrar trainees in psychiatry at the University of the Witwatersrand, the University of Cape Town, the University of KwaZulu-Natal, the University of Pretoria, the University of the Free State, Stellenbosch University, the University of Limpopo, and Walter Sisulu University between 1 June and 30 November 2019. We made use of an online survey that included questions on bullying/discrimination. All questions were closed-ended.
- ItemSimulating therapeutic drug monitoring results for dose individualisation to maintain investigator blinding in a randomised controlled trial(BioMed Central, 2017-06-07) Lesosky, Maia; Joska, John; Decloedt, EricBackground: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is essential practice when dosing drugs with a narrow therapeutic index in order to achieve a plasma drug concentration within a narrow target range above the efficacy concentration but below the toxicity concentration. However, TDM with dose individualisation is challenging during a double-blind clinical trial with laboratory staff and investigators blinded to treatment arm allocation. Methods:Drug concentrations were simulated for participants in the placebo arm by an unblinded independent statistician, utilising the measured values from the treatment arm participants. Simulated and actual concentrations were re-blinded and passed on to a dose-adjusting investigator, who made dose adjustment recommendations but was not directly responsible for clinical care of participants. Results: A total of 257 sham lithium plasma concentrations were simulated utilising 242 true lithium plasma concentrations in real time as the trial progressed. The simulated values had a median (interquartile range) of 0.59 (0.46, 0.72) compared to 0.53 (0.39, 0.72) in the treatment arm. Blinding of the laboratory staff and dose-adjusting investigator was maintained successfully. Conclusions: We succeeded in simulating sham lithium plasma concentrations while maintaining blinding. Our simulated values have a smaller range than the observed data, which can be explained by the challenges with respect to drug adherence and dose timing that were experienced. Trial registration: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, PACTR201310000635418. Registered on 30 August 2013.
- ItemTask sharing of a psychological intervention for maternal depression in Khayelitsha, South Africa : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial(BioMed Central, 2014-11) Lund, Crick; Schneider, Marguerite; Davies, Thandi; Nyatsanza, Memory; Honikman, Simone; Bhana, Arvin; Bass, Judith; Bolton, Paul; Dewey, Michael; Joska, John; Kagee, Ashraf; Myer, Landon; Petersen, Inge; Prince, Martin; Stein, Dan J.; Thornicroft, Graham; Tomlinson, Mark; Alem, Atalay; Susser, EzraBackground: Maternal depression carries a major public health burden for mothers and their infants, yet there is a substantial treatment gap for this condition in low-resourced regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. To address this treatment gap, the strategy of “task sharing” has been proposed, involving the delivery of interventions by non-specialist health workers trained and supervised by specialists in routine healthcare delivery systems. Several psychological interventions have shown benefit in treating maternal depression, but few have been rigorously evaluated using a task sharing approach. The proposed trial will be the first randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating a task sharing model of delivering care for women with maternal depression in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this RCT is to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a task sharing counseling intervention for maternal depression in South Africa. Methods/Design: The study is an individual-level two-arm RCT. A total of 420 depressed pregnant women will be recruited from two ante-natal clinics in a low-income township area of Cape Town, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale to screen for depression; 210 women will be randomly allocated to each of the intervention and control arms. The intervention group will be given six sessions of basic counseling over a period of 3 to 4 months, provided by trained community health workers (CHW)s. The control group will receive three monthly phone calls from a CHW trained to conduct phone calls but not basic counseling. The primary outcome measure is the 17-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17). The outcome measures will be applied at the baseline assessment, and at three follow-up points: 1 month before delivery, and 3 and 12 months after delivery. The primary analysis will be by intention-to-treat and secondary analyses will be on a per protocol population. The primary outcome measure will be analyzed using linear regression adjusting for baseline symptom severity measured using the HDRS-17. Discussion: The findings of this trial can provide policy makers with evidence regarding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of structured psychological interventions for maternal depression delivered by appropriately trained and supervised non-specialist CHWs in sub-Saharan Africa. Trial registration: Clinical Trials: (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT01977326, registered on 24/10/2013; Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.pactr.org): PACTR201403000676264, registered on 11/10/2013.