Browsing by Author "Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L."
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- ItemAn analysis of the influence of logistics activities on the export cold chain of temperature sensitive fruit through the Port of Cape Town(AOSIS Publishing, 2015-09) Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.; Haasbroek, Laura; Freiboth, Heinrich W.; Van Dyk, EsbethBackground: South Africa exports a large variety of different fruit types and cultivars worldwide. Yet, there is concern in the South African fruit industry that too much fruit and money is lost each year due to breaks along the fresh fruit export cold chain. Objective: The objective of this article was to identify the influence of logistics activities on breaks along the South African fruit export cold chain. The focus is specifically on temperature sensitive fruit, exported in refrigerated containers to Europe and the United Kingdom through the Port of Cape Town. This supply chain was selected as this was the most accessible supply chain in terms of retrieving the necessary temperature data. Method: The cold chain was investigated from the cold store, through all segments, until the Port of Cape Town. Temperature data collected with temperature monitoring devices from different fruit export supply chains of grapes, plums and pome fruit (apples and pears) were analysed to identify the percentage of temperature breaks and the length of temperature breaks that occur at each segment of the cold chain. Results: The results show that a large number of breaks are experienced along South Africa’s fruit export cold chain, specifically at the interface between the cold store and the truck. In addition, the findings also show that there has been an improvement in the number of breaks experienced in the Port of Cape Town following the implementation of the NAVIS and Refcon systems. Conclusion: This article concludes by providing the fruit industry with areas that require addressing to improve operational procedures along the fruit export cold chain to help ensure that the fruit arrives at its final destination at optimal quality.
- ItemCalculation of freight externality costs for South Africa(AOSIS OpenJournals, 2012-11) Swarts, Stefaan; King, David; Simpson, Zane P.; Havenga, Jan H.; Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa’s freight transport infrastructure configuration.
- ItemCalculation of freight externally costs for South Africa - a working paper(Cranfield University, 2012) Havenga JH; Simpson Z; King D; Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.
- ItemThe composite supply chain efficiency model : a case study of the Sishen-Saldanha supply chain(AOSIS Publishing, 2016) Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.ENGLISH SUMMARY : As South Africa strives to be a major force in global markets, it is essential that South African supply chains achieve and maintain a competitive advantage. One approach to achieving this is to ensure that South African supply chains maximise their levels of efficiency. Consequently, the efficiency levels of South Africa’s supply chains must be evaluated. The objective of this article is to propose a model that can assist South African industries in becoming internationally competitive by providing them with a tool for evaluating their levels of efficiency both as individual firms and as a component in an overall supply chain. The Composite Supply Chain Efficiency Model (CSCEM) was developed to measure supply chain efficiency across supply chains using variables identified as problem areas experienced by South African supply chains. The CSCEM is tested in this article using the Sishen-Saldanda iron ore supply chain as a case study. The results indicate that all three links or nodes along the Sishen-Saldanha iron ore supply chain performed well. The average efficiency of the rail leg was 97.34%, while the average efficiency of the mine and the port were 97% and 95.44%, respectively. The results also show that the CSCEM can be used by South African firms to measure their levels of supply chain efficiency. This article concludes with the benefits of the CSCEM.
- ItemContainer terminal spatial planning : a 2041 paradigm for the Western Cape Province in South Africa(AOSIS OpenJournals, 2012-11) Havenga, Jan H.; King, David; Simpson, Zane P.; Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.; De Bod, AnnekeThis paper investigates the suitable location for an intermodal inland container terminal (IICT) in the city of Cape Town. A container market segmentation approach is used to project growth for container volumes over a 30-year period for all origin and destination pairings on a geographical district level in an identified catchment area. The segmentation guides the decision on what type of facility is necessary to fulfil capacity requirements in the catchment area and will be used to determine the maximum space requirements for a future IICT. Alternative sites are ranked from most suitable to least suitable using multi-criteria analysis, and preferred locations are identified. Currently, South Africa’s freight movement is dominated by the road sector. Heavy road congestion is thus prevalent at the Cape Town Container Terminal (CTCT). The paper proposes three possible alternative sites for an IICT that will focus on a hub-and-spoke system of transporting freight.
- ItemThe decarbonisation of transport logistics : a South African case study(Unisa Press, 2018-10-09) Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.; Freiboth, Heinrich W.; Havenga, Jan H.South Africa is currently one of the "dirtiest" economies in the world in terms of carbon emissions. The South African economy is heavily dependent on energy-intensive industries, such as mining and primary minerals beneficiation, which in turn rely on fossil fuels as a source of energy. Sustainability is still a relatively new concept in South Africa, but awareness is growing, and there are several on-going initiatives aimed at reducing the country's total energy consumption. The objective of this paper is to apply the TIMBER framework to assess current transport decarbonisation activities in South Africa. The article discusses a limited field survey of ten important logistics experts in South Africa to establish whether the findings of the researchers are similar to the perceptions within the logistics sector of major industries in South Africa. This paper concludes by providing possible solutions for reducing carbon emissions in South Africa's logistics industry.
- ItemExtending freight flow modelling to Sub-Saharan Africa to inform infrastructure investments : trade data issues(AOSIS OpenJournals, 2012-11) Havenga, Jan H.; Simpson, Zane P.; King, David; Lanz, E. J.; Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.; De Bod, AnnekeThis paper highlights the first attempt by researchers at Stellenbosch University to model freight flows between and for 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The model will be informed by and linked to the South African surface Freight Demand Model (FDM) given these dimensions. By analysing and collating available datasets and developing a freight flow model, a better understanding of freight movements between countries can be obtained and then used for long-term planning efforts. A simple methodology is envisaged that will entail a high-level corridor classification that links a major district in the country with a similar district in another country. Existing trade data will be used to corroborate new base-year economic demand and supply volumetric data that will be generated from social accounting matrices for each country. The trade data will also provide initial flow dynamics between countries that will be refined according to the new volumes. The model can then generate commodity-level corridor flows between SSA countries, and between SSA countries and the rest of the world, as well as intra-country rural and metropolitan flows, using a gravity-based modelling approach. This article outlines efforts to harmonise trade data between the 17 countries identified, as well as between these countries and the rest of the world as a first step towards developing a freight demand model for sub-Saharan Africa.
- ItemGlobal economic recessions and the maritime industry 1980-2009: Impact on South African shipping 2000-2012(Sabinet Online - SA, 2012) Jacobs L; Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.
- ItemThe impact of the moratorium on the regulation governing vehicle height restriction : a South African high cube container case(Southern African Institute for Industrial Engineering, 2020) Adams, Tiffany Michelle; Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.; Van Eeden, JoubertENGLISH ABSTRACT: The South African National Road Traffic Act stipulates a legal vehicle height of 4.3 metres. The standard flat deck trailer fleet used in South Africa, combined with the international standard high cube container stands at 4.5 metres, thus breaching this limit. The complexity of the transport system involves aspects of road infrastructure, transport haulage equipment, road safety, and export economies of scale, leaving this issue unresolved for a decade. A stakeholder analysis, industry survey, analytic hierarchy process method, and semi-structured interviews were conducted to determine the best outcome from a risk and financial perspective. The research outcome indicates that legislation should be adjusted.
- ItemInvestigating supply chain sustainability in South African organisations(AOSIS, 2018) Niehaus, Gabrielle; Freiboth, Heinrich W.; Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.Background: The need for sustainable supply chain management has become a necessity given the growing impact of climate change and global warming. The South African (SA) government is planning to implement a carbon tax in the future, which will present financial challenges for organisations already facing social and environmental difficulties. Objectives: The main objective of this article was to investigate the current sustainability reporting practices in supply chains of SA organisations. The focus was specifically on the supply chain sustainability practices of organisations listed in selected sectors on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE). A secondary objective was to investigate preparation efforts by SA companies for the impending carbon tax. Method: Data collected from sustainability and integrated annual reports of organisations in the sample were analysed using non-parametric statistical tests to compare sectors on the JSE and to compare companies listed on the socially responsible investment (SRI) Index with those that are not. Results: The results showed that there is insufficient data for some of the sectors; however, there are differences in the supply chain and sustainability practices for the remaining sectors. There are also differences in these practices between SRI and non-SRI companies. The research also showed that companies are discussing important concepts relating to the implementation of the impending carbon tax. Research impact: SA organisations need to increase their focus on sustainable supply chain practices. Further investigation into the preparation efforts of companies to reduce their emissions and/or footprint and mitigate the impact of the impending carbon tax is necessary.
- ItemInvestigating temperature breaks in the summer fruit export cold chain : a case study(AOSIS Publishing, 2013-11) Freiboth, Heinrich W.; Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.; Van Dyk, F. Esbeth; Dodd, Malcolm C.There is concern in the South African fruit industry that a large amount of fruit and money is lost every season due to breaks in the fruit export cold chain. The possibility of a large percentage of losses in a significant sector of the economy warranted further investigation. This article attempted to highlight some of the possible problem areas in the cold chain, from the cold store to the port, by analysing historic temperature data from different fruit export supply chains of apples, pears and grapes. In addition, a trial shipment of apples was used to investigate temperature variation between different pallets in the same container. This research has added value to the South African fruit industry by identifying the need to improve operational procedures in the cold chain.
- ItemMaintaining cold chain integrity : temperature breaks within fruit reefer containers in the Cape Town Container Terminal(University of South Africa, 2017) Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.; Stander, C.; Van Dyk, F. E.South Africa is among the top 10 fruit-exporting countries in the world. The South African fruit industry has identifi ed temperature breaks along the fruit export cold chain that result in the deterioration of fruit quality, loss of market credibility, and fi nancial losses. Seventy percent (70%) of South African fruit exports are shipped through the Cape Town Container Terminal (CTCT). This in-depth case study provides a better understanding of the signifi cant challenges within the CTCT. This research revealed that 81% of the temperature breaks in fruit reefer containers carrying summer fruit originate within the CTCT. The average time for a reefer container to be plugged in from when it enters the port is 1 hour and 52 minutes; almost three times higher than the 40-minute goal time. Only one-fi fth of containers experienced no temperature breaks, while almost a quarter never cooled down to the target temperature. Operational issues that need to be addressed have been identifi ed, such as the increased use of gensets, improved scheduling for arrival at the CTCT, and training of port personnel as to the correct standards for cold chain management. There is, however, also a need for improved collaboration between the producers, fruit exporters, logistics service providers, the CTCT, and shipping lines to enable end-to-end integrity of the cold chain. The latter will be the subject of future research.
- ItemPredicting the throughput of grain products at the multipurpose terminal at the Port of Cape Town(AOSIS Publishing, 2016) Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Background: Ports provide vital links in the maritime supply chains on which the trading of countries depend, and their efficiency and performance can contribute largely to the international competitiveness of those countries. However, to achieve and maintain such a contribution, port operators need to understand their role in a national economy and the factors that underlie the efficiency of the intermodal link that ports constitute in international supply chains. One such factor is the capacity of specialised cargo terminals. Objectives: This article described a possible technique for forecasting the throughput of grain imports through the bulk grain terminal at the Port of Cape Town. It determined whether the capacity in the bulk grain terminal is sufficient to handle current and forecasted volumes of imported grains or whether the volumes justify expansion or upgrading of the bulk grain terminal in the Port of Cape Town. Method: The Box–Jenkins methodology for autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models was applied. An ARIMA model – 2 parameter, 1 difference – was selected to do the forecast. Results: The average tonnage of all grains imported through the Port of Cape Town that can be expected in a month is approximately 90 000 tons. The maximum tonnage of all grains imported through the Port of Cape Town that can be expected in a month is approximately 180 000 tons. Conclusion: The analyses show that the demand for imports of grain products at the multipurpose terminal in the Port of Cape Town is not growing substantially. The analyses also identify that the current upper limits of grain imports are within the existing handling and storage capacities of the bulk grain terminal.
- ItemProvincial logistics costs in South Africas Western Cape province : microcosm of national freight logistics challenges(AOSIS Publishing, 2015-09) Havenga, Jan H.; Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.; De Bod, Anneke; Simpson, Zane P.Background: Logistics costs are most commonly measured on a national level. An understanding of the provincial logistics landscape can add significant value both to provincial and national policy interventions; such measurements are however scarce. South Africa’s national freight logistics survey points to significant challenges in the structure of the freight transport market, most importantly the dominance of road freight transport on dense, longdistance corridors. The Cape Town-Gauteng corridor is the main economic artery linking the Western Cape province to the rest of the country. Objectives: The provincial government commissioned this research to develop an understanding of the province’s contribution to the national logistics challenges in order to alleviate both provincial and national logistics challenges. Results: The research results provide a distinct description of the key action required – to provide an intermodal solution for the dense flows of fast-moving consumer goods on the Cape Town-Gauteng corridor in order to reduce the significant transport and externality costs related to these flows and reduce exposure to exogenous cost drivers. Conclusion: Collaborative research between government and private industry into appropriate intermodal technologies must be prioritised within the ambit of South Africa’s socioeconomic environment. This shift can be further supported through the internalisation of road transport externalities to enable a total cost decision between modes, as well as through appropriate regulation of the freight transport industry.
- ItemRisk profile of weather and system-related port congestion for the Cape Town container terminal(Unisa Press, 2020) Potgieter, Lilian; Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.; Havenga, JanThe South African maritime industry suffers from a number of risks, with the most prominent source of risk stemming from congestion within port terminals. The Port of Cape Town is one of South Africa’s main ports. Two of the risks faced by the Cape Town Container Terminal (CTCT) and associated with port congestion are adverse weather and system challenges. The study investigated the current frequency and scheduling impact of weather- and system-related congestion experienced by ocean carriers in the CTCT. This study was conducted in two phases, namely exploratory secondary research, followed by primary research. The secondary research provided background information and historical data on the Port of Cape Town, the CTCT, and congestion in South Africa’s ports as well as global port congestion. In addition, the primary data collected, which comprised personal interviews and email correspondence, were used to analyse current port congestion within the CTCT and to develop risk profiles. The major findings of this study indicate that both weather- and system-related port congestion are ranked as major risks occurring between 2011 and 2018 in the CTCT, suggesting that greater risk mitigation strategies should be implemented. This risk ranking will likely worsen in the future, if mitigation strategies are not improved. The study classifies weather- and system-related port congestion in the CTCT in terms of the level of risk and helps identify which areas management should focus on to mitigate greater levels of risk in the future.
- ItemThe temperature profile of an apple supply chain : a case study of the Ceres district(AOSIS Publishing, 2017) Valentine, A. G. Du Toit; Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Background: There is a logistical gap in the first section of the apple supply chain that affects the temperature profiles of apples further downstream in the supply chain. Objectives: This article’s main objective is to confirm whether the logistics processes, in terms of the temperature profile of apples for the first 48 hours post-harvest, have an influence on the yield and/or quality of the fruit. Method: Observations were made and informal interviews were conducted on three different farms to ascertain their perspective of the first section of the supply chain. Temperature trials were conducted to analyse the temperature profile of two apple varieties, namely Golden Delicious and Granny Smith on three different farms. These trials were conducted by placing an iButton® device on the inside and outside of an apple to measure the temperature readings every minute for the first 48 hours after picking. Results: The research identified that it is not only at what time the apples are being harvested, but also at what time the apples are placed under cooling conditions to remove the field heat to obtain the recommended temperature profile within 48 hours. In addition, it was determined that effective and efficient picking at the right time (especially between 07:00 and 09:00) and the transportation of the apples directly, or as soon as possible after the apples came out of the orchard to the centralised cold storage facility, are key in ensuring the quality of the fruit and the temperature profile necessary for export. Conclusion: This article identifies the need to improve operational procedures along the cold chain. From this research, it is clear that there are problem areas that affect the temperature profile of apples.
- ItemTowards a full determination of freight transport externality costs - The case for South Africa(Centre for Concurrent Enterprise, 2012) Swarts S; King D; Simpson Z; Havenga JH; Goedhals-Gerber, Leila L.