Browsing by Author "Gledhill, Martha"
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- ItemAtmospheric deposition fluxes over the Atlantic Ocean : a GEOTRACES case study(Copernicus Publications, 2019-04-11) Barraqueta, Jan-Lukas Menzel; Klar, Jessica K.; Gledhill, Martha; Schlosser, Christian; Shelley, Rachel; Planquette, Helene F.; Wenzel, Bernhard; Sarthou, Geraldine; Achterberg, Eric P.Atmospheric deposition is an important source of micronutrients to the ocean, but atmospheric deposition fluxes remain poorly constrained in most ocean regions due to the limited number of field observations of wet and dry atmospheric inputs. Here we present the distribution of dissolved aluminium (dAl), as a tracer of atmospheric inputs, in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean along GEOTRACES sections GA01, GA06, GA08, and GA10. We used the surface mixed-layer concentrations of dAl to calculate atmospheric deposition fluxes using a simple steady state model. We have optimized the Al fractional aerosol solubility, the dAl residence time within the surface mixed layer and the depth of the surface mixed layer for each separate cruise to calculate the atmospheric deposition fluxes. We calculated the lowest deposition fluxes of 0.15±0.1 and 0.27±0.13 g m−2 yr−1 for the South and North Atlantic Ocean (>40∘ S and >40∘ N) respectively, and the highest fluxes of 1.8 and 3.09 g m−2 yr−1 for the south-east Atlantic and tropical Atlantic Ocean, respectively. Overall, our estimations are comparable to atmospheric dust deposition model estimates and reported field-based atmospheric deposition estimates. We note that our estimates diverge from atmospheric dust deposition model flux estimates in regions influenced by riverine Al inputs and in upwelling regions. As dAl is a key trace element in the GEOTRACES programme, the approach presented in this study allows calculations of atmospheric deposition fluxes at high spatial resolution for remote ocean regions.
- ItemControls on redox-sensitive trace metals in the Mauritanian oxygen minimum zone(Copernicus Publications, 2019-11-05) Rapp, Insa; Schlosser, Christian; Barraqueta, Jan-Lukas Menzel; Wenzel, Bernhard; Ludke, Jan; Scholten, Jan; Gasser, Beat; Reichert, Patrick; Gledhill, Martha; Dengler, Marcus; Achterberg, Eric P.The availability of the micronutrient iron (Fe) in surface waters determines primary production, N2 fixation, and microbial community structure in large parts of the world's ocean, and thus it plays an important role in ocean carbon and nitrogen cycles. Eastern boundary upwelling systems and the connected oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are typically associated with elevated concentrations of redox-sensitive trace metals (e.g., Fe, manganese (Mn), and cobalt (Co)), with shelf sediments typically forming a key source. Over the last 5 decades, an expansion and intensification of OMZs has been observed and this trend is likely to proceed. However, it is unclear how trace-metal (TM) distributions and transport are influenced by decreasing oxygen (O2) concentrations. Here we present dissolved (d; <0.2 µm) and leachable particulate (Lp; >0.2 µm) TM data collected at seven stations along a 50 km transect in the Mauritanian shelf region. We observed enhanced concentrations of Fe, Co, and Mn corresponding with low O2 concentrations (<50 µmol kg−1), which were decoupled from major nutrients and nutrient-like and scavenged TMs (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and copper (Cu)). Additionally, data from repeated station occupations indicated a direct link between dissolved and leachable particulate Fe, Co, Mn, and O2. An observed dFe (dissolved iron) decrease from 10 to 5 nmol L−1 coincided with an O2 increase from 30 to 50 µmol kg−1 and with a concomitant decrease in turbidity. The changes in Fe (Co and Mn) were likely driven by variations in their release from sediment pore water, facilitated by lower O2 concentrations and longer residence time of the water mass on the shelf. Variations in organic matter remineralization and lithogenic inputs (atmospheric deposition or sediment resuspension; assessed using Al as indicator for lithogenic inputs) only played a minor role in redox-sensitive TM variability. Vertical dFe fluxes from O2-depleted subsurface-to-surface waters (0.08–13.5 µmol m−2 d−1) driven by turbulent mixing and vertical advection were an order of magnitude larger than atmospheric deposition fluxes (0.63–1.43 µmol m−2 d−1; estimated using dAl inventories in the surface mixed layer) in the continental slope and shelf region. Benthic fluxes are therefore the dominant dFe supply to surface waters on the continental margins of the Mauritanian upwelling region. Overall, our results indicated that the projected future decrease in O2 concentrations in OMZs may result in increases in Fe, Mn, and Co concentrations.
- ItemRegulation of the phytoplankton heme b iron pool during the North Atlantic spring bloom(Frontiers Media, 2019-07-11) Louropoulou, Evangelia; Gledhill, Martha; Browning, Thomas J.; Desai, Dhwani K.; Barraqueta, Jan-Lukas Menzel; Tonnard, Manon; Sarthou, Geraldine; Planquette, Helene; Bowie, Andrew R.; Schmitz, Ruth A.; LaRoche, Julie; Achterberg, Eric P.Heme b is an iron-containing co-factor in hemoproteins. Heme b concentrations are low (<1 pmol L⁻²) in iron limited phytoplankton in cultures and in the field. Here, we determined heme b in marine particulate material (>0.7 μm) from the North Atlantic Ocean (GEOVIDE cruise – GEOTRACES section GA01), which spanned several biogeochemical regimes. We examined the relationship between heme b abundance and the microbial community composition, and its utility for mapping iron limited phytoplankton. Heme b concentrations ranged from 0.16 to 5.1 pmol L⁻² (median = 2.0 pmol L⁻², n = 62) in the surface mixed layer (SML) along the cruise track, driven mainly by variability in biomass. However, in the Irminger Basin, the lowest heme b levels (SML: median = 0.53 pmol L⁻², n = 12) were observed, whilst the biomass was highest (particulate organic carbon, median = 14.2 μmol L⁻², n = 25; chlorophyll a: median = 2.0 nmol L⁻², n = 23) pointing to regulatory mechanisms of the heme b pool for growth conservation. Dissolved iron (DFe) was not depleted (SML: median = 0.38 nmol L⁻², n = 11) in the Irminger Basin, but large diatoms (Rhizosolenia sp.) dominated. Hence, heme b depletion and regulation is likely to occur during bloom progression when phytoplankton class-dependent absolute iron requirements exceed the available ambient concentration of DFe. Furthermore, high heme b concentrations found in the Iceland Basin and Labrador Sea (median = 3.4 pmol L⁻², n = 20), despite having similar DFe concentrations to the Irminger Basin, were attributed to an earlier growth phase of the extant phytoplankton populations. Thus, heme b provides a snapshot of the cellular activity in situ and could both be used as indicator of iron limitation and contribute to understanding phytoplankton adaptation mechanisms to changing iron supplies.