Browsing by Author "Essuman, Akye"
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- ItemAfrican leaders views on critical human resource issues for the implementation of family medicine in Africa(BioMed Central, 2014-01) Moosa, Shabir; Downing, Raymond; Essuman, Akye; Pentz, Stephen; Reid, Stephen; Mash, RobertENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background: The World Health Organisation has advocated for comprehensive primary care teams, which include family physicians. However, despite (or because of) severe doctor shortages in Africa, there is insufficient clarity on the role of the family physician in the primary health care team. Instead there is a trend towards task shifting without thought for teamwork, which runs the risk of dangerous oversimplification. It is not clear how African leaders understand the challenges of implementing family medicine, especially in human resource terms. This study, therefore, sought to explore the views of academic and government leaders on critical human resource issues for implementation of family medicine in Africa. Method: In this qualitative study, key academic and government leaders were purposively selected from sixteen African countries. In-depth interviews were conducted using an interview guide. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results: There were 27 interviews conducted with 16 government and 11 academic leaders in nine Sub-Saharan African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa and Uganda. Respondents spoke about: educating doctors in family medicine suited to Africa, including procedural skills and holistic care, to address the difficulty of recruiting and retaining doctors in rural and underserved areas; planning for primary health care teams, including family physicians; new supervisory models in primary health care; and general human resource management issues. Conclusions: Important milestones in African health care fail to specifically address the human resource issues of integrated primary health care teamwork that includes family physicians. Leaders interviewed in this study, however, proposed organising the district health system with a strong embrace of family medicine in Africa, especially with regard to providing clinical leadership in team-based primary health care. Whilst these leaders focussed positively on entry and workforce issues, in terms of the 2006 World Health Report on human resources for health, they did not substantially address retention of family physicians. Family physicians need to respond to the challenge by respondents to articulate human resource policies appropriate to Africa, including the organisational development of the primary health care team with more sophisticated skills and teamwork.
- ItemAfrican primary care research : current situation, priorities and capacity building(AOSIS Publishing, 2014-12) Mash, Robert; Essuman, Akye; Ratansi, Riaz; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Von Pressentin, Klaus; Malan, Zelra; Van Lancker, Marianne; De Maeseneer, JanIntroduction: The Sixth PRIMAFAMED (Primary Health Care/Family Medicine Education Network) workshop on ‘Capacity Building and Priorities in Primary Care Research’ was held in Pretoria, South Africa (SA), from 22 to 24 June 2014. Delegates from the following countries attended the workshop: Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, SA, Zambia, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Mozambique, Swaziland, Belgium, and Denmark (Figure 1). Delegates were from established or emerging departments of family medicine and primary care in these countries. The central theme of the workshop was primary care research – the current situation, the priorities for research and the need for capacity building. This report gives a summary of the consensus on these matters that emerged from the workshop. The motivation for the conference was derived in part from the involvement of Professor Bob Mash (SA) and Professor Olayinka Ayankogbe (Nigeria) in the World Organization of Family Doctors (WONCA) Global Working Party on Primary Care Research, which has a goal of promoting primary care research.
- ItemCommunity-orientated primary care : a scoping review of different models, and their effectiveness and feasibility in sub-Saharan Africa(BMJ, 2019) Mash, Bob; Ray, Sunanda; Essuman, Akye; Burgueno, EduIntroduction: Community-orientated primary care (COPC) is an approach to primary healthcare (PHC) that originated in South Africa and contributed to the formulation of the Declaration of Alma-Ata 40 years ago. Despite this, PHC remains poorly developed in sub-Saharan African countries. There has been a resurgence of interest in strengthening PHC systems in the last few years and identifying key knowledge gaps. COPC has been an effective strategy elsewhere, most notably Brazil. This scoping review investigated COPC in the sub-Saharan African context and looked for evidence of different models, effectiveness and feasibility. Methods: Databases were systematically searched using a comprehensive search strategy to identify studies from the last 10 years. A methodological guideline for conducting scoping reviews was followed. A standardised template was used to extract data and compare study characteristics and findings. Studies were grouped into five categories: historical analysis, models, implementation, educational studies and effectiveness. Results: A total of 1997 publications were identified and 39 included in the review. Most publications were from the last 5 years (n = 32), research (n = 27), from South Africa (n = 27), focused on implementation (n = 25) and involving case studies (n = 9), programme evaluation (n = 6) or qualitative methods (n = 10). Nine principles of COPC were identified from different models. Factors related to the implementation of COPC were identified in terms of governance, finances, community health workers, primary care facilities, community participation, health information and training. There was very little evidence of effectiveness of COPC. Conclusions: There is a need for further research to describe models of COPC in Africa, investigate the appropriate skills mix to integrate public health and primary care in these models, evaluate the effectiveness of COPC and whether it is included in training of healthcare workers and government policy.
- ItemUndergraduate family medicine and primary care training in Sub-Saharan Africa : reflections of the PRIMAFAMED network(AOSIS publishing, 2017-01) Besigye, Innocent; Mash, Robert; Essuman, Akye; Flinkenflogel, MaaikeInternationally, there is a move towards strengthening primary healthcare systems and encouraging community-based and socially responsible education. The development of doctors with an interest in primary healthcare and family medicine in the African region should begin during undergraduate training. Over the last few years, attention has been given to the development of postgraduate training in family medicine in the African region, but little attention has been given to undergraduate training. This article reports on the 8th PRIMAFAMED (Primary Care and Family Medicine Education) network meeting held in Nairobi from 21 to 24 May 2016. At this meeting the delegates spent time presenting and discussing the current state of undergraduate training at 18 universities in the region and shared lessons on how to successfully implement undergraduate training. This article reports on the rationale for, information presented, process followed and conclusions reached at the conference.