Browsing by Author "Eide, Arne H."
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- ItemAccess to assistive technology in two Southern African countries(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2018-10-19) Matter, Rebecca A.; Eide, Arne H.Background: Millions of people in Southern Africa are deprived of basic human rights such as the right to education and work because of the large and growing unmet demand for assistive technologies (AT). Evidence is needed to better characterize the lack of AT access. Methods: This study serves to identify the sociodemographic factors that are associated with access to AT in two countries in Southern Africa, Botswana and Swaziland. To achieve this aim, logistics regression was applied to a subset of variables from two Living Conditions Studies, nationally representative surveys that were conducted in Southern Africa (2014 and 2010). Results: In Botswana, 44% of people who needed AT did not receive it, while in Swaziland the unmet need was 67%. Among the sociodemographic variables tested, the type of disability was the most important factor in determining AT access in both countries. The likelihood of AT access was highest in both countries for those who had mobility limitations (i.e., difficulty walking/climbing stairs) [Botswana: 6.4 odds ratio (OR) = 6.4., 95% confidence internal (CI) (3.6–11.3); Swaziland: OR = 3.2, CI (1.4–7.3)], in comparison to those with non-mobility types of disabilities. Conclusions: These findings provide support for governments and other stakeholders in the AT sector to prioritize AT to address the large unmet demand, and expand the range of AT products provided so that people with hearing, seeing, self-care, communication and cognition difficulties have equal access to AT as those with mobility impairments. A step toward achieving these aims is to inventory AT product types that are commonly covered through the public sector in each country, and identify common gaps (e.g., daily living aids). Advancing the AT sector as a whole within Southern Africa will require large scale qualitative studies that achieve a comprehensive understanding of the bottlenecks in regional AT supply, procurement, and delivery systems.
- ItemBarriers to and facilitators of rehabilitation services for people with physical disabilities : a systematic review(AOSIS Publishing, 2013-09) Mlenzana, Nondwe B.; Frantz, Jose M.; Rhoda, Anthea J.; Eide, Arne H.Background: As health care practitioners, it is important to have an understanding of the common barriers to and facilitators of the rehabilitation services we provide. Objectives: This article aimed to review the relevant literature regarding barriers to and facilitators of rehabilitation services for people with disabilities. Method: Articles for the period 1990–2010 using descriptors related to rehabilitation services, barriers, facilitators and the physically disabled population were retrieved for this review. Results: A total of 19 article titles were identified from references of other articles but following application of the inclusion criteria selected for this review, only six articles were chosen. Five of these articles were qualitative studies and one was a quantitative study. Barriers and facilitators regarding rehabilitation services highlighted by participants in the studies included a perception that health professionals have a lack of understanding of rehabilitation for people with disabilities and there was a lack of information sharing from health professionals about the rehabilitation process. On the other hand some participants reported that health professionals demonstrated confidence in the disability and rehabilitation process during consultation and highlighted that their needs were met by the rehabilitation professionals. Conclusion: Even though there were few studies highlighting the barriers to and facilitators of rehabilitation services, they highlighted that there are gaps in the process of rehabilitation services provided. It would be advisable for health professionals to take cognisance of the issues highlighted in this study in order to make rehabilitation services more effective.
- ItemEducation, work, and motherhood in low and middle income countries : a review of equality challenges and opportunities for women with disabilities(Cogitatio, 2018-03-26) Tefera, Belaynesh; Van Engen, Marloes L.; Schippers, Alice; Eide, Arne H.; Kersten, Amber; Van der Klink, JacThis study looks at the equality challenges and opportunities for women with disabilities in low and middle income countries (LMICs) to participate and succeed in education, employment and motherhood. It is based on a systematic review of the literature from academic and non-governmental organization databases. The search of these databases yielded 24 articles, which were subsequently passed through open, axial, and selective coding. The resulting review found that women with disabilities in LMICs have severe difficulty participating and succeeding in education, employment and motherhood due to a number of interrelated factors: (i) hampered access to education, employment, intimacy and marriage, (ii) stigma and cultural practices resulting in discrimination and prejudice, and (iii) lack of support from family, teachers and institutions—all of which are exacerbated by poverty. Support from families, communities, the government, and non-governmental organizations improves women’s ability to fulfil their social roles (as students, employees and mothers), resulting in a better quality of life. Strategies that create awareness, minimize poverty and facilitate justice may improve the opportunities for women with disabilities in LMICs to participate in education, employment and motherhood, as well as their ability to succeed in these domains.
- ItemFactors related to environmental barriers experienced by persons with and without disabilities in diverse African settings(Public Library of Science, 2017-12) Visagie, Surona; Eide, Arne H.; Dyrstad, Karin; Mannan, Hasheem; Swartz, Leslie; Schneider, Marguerite; Mji, Gubela; Munthali, Alister; Khogali, Mustafa; Van Rooy, Gert; Hem, Karl-Gerhard; MacLachlan, MalcolmENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper explores differences in experienced environmental barriers between individuals with and without disabilities and the impact of additional factors on experienced environmental barriers. Data was collected in 2011–2012 by means of a two-stage cluster sampling and comprised 400–500 households in different sites in South Africa, Sudan Malawi and Namibia. Data were collected through self-report survey questionnaires. In addition to descriptive statistics and simple statistical tests a structural equation model was developed and tested. The combined file comprised 9,307 participants. The Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors was used to assess the level of environmental barriers. Transportation, the natural environment and access to health care services created the biggest barriers. An exploratory factor analysis yielded support for a one component solution for environmental barriers. A scale was constructed by adding the items together and dividing by number of items, yielding a range from one to five with five representing the highest level of environmental barriers and one the lowest. An overall mean value of 1.51 was found. Persons with disabilities scored 1.66 and persons without disabilities 1.36 (F = 466.89, p < .001). Bivariate regression analyses revealed environmental barriers to be higher among rural respondents, increasing with age and severity of disability, and lower for those with a higher level of education and with better physical and mental health. Gender had an impact only among persons without disabilities, where women report more barriers than men. Structural equation model analysis showed that socioeconomic status was significantly and negatively associated with environmental barriers. Activity limitation is significantly associated with environmental barriers when controlling for a number of other individual characteristics. Reducing barriers for the general population would go some way to reduce the impact of these for persons with activity limitations, but additional and specific adaptations will be required to ensure an inclusive society.
- ItemPerceived barriers for accessing health services among individuals with disability in four African countries(Public Library of Science, 2015) Eide, Arne H.; Mannan, Hasheem; Khogali, Mustafa; Van Rooy, Gert; Swartz, Leslie; Munthali, Alister; Hem, Karl-Gerhard; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Dyrstad, KarinENGLISH ABSTRACT: There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality.
- ItemPerceived current needs, psychological distress and functional impairment in a war-affected setting : a cross-sectional study in South Sudan(BMJ Publishing Group, 2015) Ayazi, Touraj; Swartz, Leslie; Eide, Arne H.; Lien, Lars; Hauff, EdvardObjectives: To examine the current perceived needs of the general population in a war-affected setting, and to study the influence of perceived needs on the participants’ mental health status and functional impairment across genders. Methods: A cross-sectional community survey (n=464) was conducted in war-affected South Sudan. Three regression models were analysed. Perceived needs were assessed with the Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs Scale. Psychological distress was measured with the General Health Questionnaire and level of functioning by the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Results The most frequently expressed needs were related to drinking water, alcohol and drug use in the community and access to sanitation facilities. No gender differences were found regarding the level of perceived needs or the number of traumatic events. Higher level of perceived needs significantly predicted psychological distress and lower level of functioning even when numbers of experienced trauma events were taken into account. Conclusions: The associations of higher level of needs and trauma experiences, on the one hand, and negative health outcomes on the other, necessitate a greater integration of interventions directed towards the population's perceived needs and mental health, particularly for those who have been exposed to trauma.
- ItemPromoting good policy for leadership and governance of health related rehabilitation : a realist synthesis(BioMed Central, 2016-08-24) McVeigh, Joanne; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Gilmore, Brynne; McClean, Chiedza; Eide, Arne H.; Mannan, Hasheem; Geiser, Priscille; Duttine, Antony; Mji, Gubela; McAuliffe, Eilish; Sprunt, Beth; Amin, Mutamad; Normand, CharlesENGLISH SUMMARY : Good governance may result in strengthened performance of a health system. Coherent policies are essential for good health system governance. The overall aim of this research is to provide the best available scientific evidence on principles of good policy related leadership and governance of health related rehabilitation services in less resourced settings. This research was also conducted to support development of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Guidelines on health related rehabilitation. Methods: An innovative study design was used, comprising two methods: a systematic search and realist synthesis of literature, and a Delphi survey of expert stakeholders to refine and triangulate findings from the realist synthesis. In accordance with Pawson and Tilley’s approach to realist synthesis, we identified context mechanism outcome pattern configurations (CMOCs) from the literature. Subsequently, these CMOCs were developed into statements for the Delphi survey, whereby 18 expert stakeholders refined these statements to achieve consensus on recommendations for policy related governance of health related rehabilitation. Results: Several broad principles emerged throughout formulation of recommendations: participation of persons with disabilities in policy processes to improve programme responsiveness, efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability, and to strengthen service-user self-determination and satisfaction; collection of disaggregated disability statistics to support political momentum, decision-making of policymakers, evaluation, accountability, and equitable allocation of resources; explicit promotion in policies of access to services for all subgroups of persons with disabilities and service-users to support equitable and accessible services; robust inter-sectoral coordination to cultivate coherent mandates across governmental departments regarding service provision; and ‘institutionalizing’ programmes by aligning them with preexisting Ministerial models of healthcare to support programme sustainability. Conclusions: Alongside national policymakers, our policy recommendations are relevant for several stakeholders, including service providers and service-users. This research aims to provide broad policy recommendations, rather than a strict formula, in acknowledgement of contextual diversity and complexity. Accordingly, our study proposes general principles regarding optimal policy related governance of health related rehabilitation in less resourced settings, which may be valuable across diverse health systems and contexts.