Browsing by Author "Dugan, Michael E. R."
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- ItemImproving beef hamburger quality and fatty acid profiles through dietary manipulation and exploitation of fat depot heterogeneity(BioMed Central, 2014-11) Mapiye, Cletos; Aalhus, Jennifer L.; Vahmani, Payam; Rolland, David C.; McAllister, Timothy A.; Block, Hushton C.; Uttaro, Bethany; Proctor, Spencer D.; Dugan, Michael E. R.Background: Hamburger is the most consumed beef product in North America, but lacks in nutritional appeal due to its high fat content and high proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Objectives of the present study were to improve the FA profiles of hamburgers made with perirenal fat (PRF) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) when feeding steers different diets along with examining differences in sensory attributes and oxidative stability. Diets included a control diet containing 70:30 red clover silage: barley based concentrate, a diet containing sunflower-seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% wheat dried distillers’ grain with solubles (DDGS-15) or 30% DDGS (DDGS-30). Hamburgers were made from triceps brachii and either PRF or SCF (80:20 w/w). Results Perirenal fat versus SCF hamburgers FA had 14.3% more (P <0.05) 18:0, 11.8% less cis (c)9-18:1 (P <0.05), and 1.82% more total trans (t)-18:1 mainly in the form of t11-18:1. During sensory evaluation, PRF versus SCF hamburgers had greater (P <0.05) mouth coating, but the difference was less than one panel unit. Examining effects of steer diet within PRF hamburgers, feeding the SS compared to the control diet increased (P <0.05) t-18:1 by 2.89% mainly in the form of t11-18:1, feeding DGGS-15 diet led to no further changes (P >0.05), but feeding DDGS-30 diet reduced the proportions of (P <0.05) of t-18:1 chiefly t11-18:1. Feeding SS and DDGS diets had small but significant (P <0.05) effects on hamburger sensory attributes and oxidative stability. Conclusions Feeding high-forage diets including SS and 15% DDGS, and taking advantage of the FA heterogeneity between fat depots offers an opportunity to differentially enhance beef hamburgers with 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products (i.e., t11-18:1) with potential human health benefits without compromising their sensory attributes and oxidative stability during retail display.
- ItemPolyunsaturated fatty acid, volatile and sensory profiles of beef from steers fed citrus pulp or grape pomace(Elsevier, 2020-11-28) Tayengwa, Tawanda; Chikwanha, Obert C.; Neethling, Jeannine; Dugan, Michael E. R.; Mutsvangwa, Timothy; Mapiye, CletosThe present study compared the effects of feeding dried grape pomace (DGP) or citrus pulp (DCP) at 150 g/kg dry matter compared to a control diet on major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), volatile and sensory profiles of beef. Feeding DGP or DCP diets to Angus steers for 90 d increased the proportions of C18:2n-6, C20:4n-6, C18:3n-3, total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 and n-6 PUFA in muscle. Control-fed beef had greater concentrations of C18:1n-9, total aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols compared to DCP and DGP. Feeding DGP and DCP diets produced less tender beef than control. Overall, finishing steers on diets containing DGP or DCP compared to control increased proportions of total CLA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA, and reduced concentrations of aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols, but did not affect beef sensory attributes except for a slight reduction in tenderness.
- ItemPork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids(MDPI, 2015-12) Dugan, Michael E. R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juarez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.
- ItemThe scope for manipulating the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of beef : a review(BioMed Central, 2015-06-24) Vahmani, Payam; Mapiye, Cletos; Prieto, Nuria; Rolland, David C.; McAllister, Tim A.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.; Dugan, Michael E. R.Since 1950, links between intake of saturated fatty acids and heart disease have led to recommendations to limit consumption of saturated fatty acid-rich foods, including beef. Over this time, changes in food consumption patterns in several countries including Canada and the USA have not led to improvements in health. Instead, the incidence of obesity, type II diabetes and associated diseases have reached epidemic proportions owing in part to replacement of dietary fat with refined carbohydrates. Despite the content of saturated fatty acids in beef, it is also rich in heart healthy cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, and can be an important source of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in populations where little or no oily fish is consumed. Beef also contains polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products, including vaccenic and rumenic acids, which have been shown to have anticarcinogenic and hypolipidemic properties in cell culture and animal models. Beef can be enriched with these beneficial fatty acids through manipulation of beef cattle diets, which is now more important than ever because of increasing public understanding of the relationships between diet and health. The present review examines recommendations for beef in human diets, the need to recognize the complex nature of beef fat, how cattle diets and management can alter the fatty acid composition of beef, and to what extent content claims are currently possible for beef fatty acids.