Browsing by Author "Du Preez, Francois"
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- ItemBiological control of two sporadic grapevine pests, Plangia graminea and Lobesia vanillana, using entomopathogenic nematodes.(2019-03) Du Preez, Francois; Addison, Pia; Malan, Antoinette P.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Conservation Ecology and Entomology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Plangia graminea (Serville) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and Lobesia vanillana (De Joannis) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are two sporadic, minor pests of wine grape vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Recent years have seen an increase in their abundance and damage, which necessitates their control. Little is known about the biology, ecology and distribution of these insects. The aim of this study was to collect their basic ecological data and to evaluate entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) as potential biocontrol agents. Nymphs of P. graminea were evaluated against 12 in vivo-cultured EPN species, of which Heterorhabditis zealandica (SF41), H. indica (SGS), Steinernema jeffreyense (J192), S. yirgalemense (157-C) and H. baujardi (MT19), resulted in > 82 % mortality after 48 h. Larvae of L. vanillana were evaluated against S. jeffreyense (J192) and S. yirgalemense (157-C), sourced from both in vivo and in vitro-cultures of the same isolates. Results show that they were susceptible to all treatments, resulting in > 72% mortality, and that there was no significant difference in mortality between in vivo and in vitro-cultured nematodes of the same EPN species, but that in the in vitro-culture, S. yirgalemense (98%) performed significantly better than S. jeffreyense (73%). Cadavers from screening bioassays were dissected to evaluate the presence of infective juveniles (IJ), which in turn confirmed insect mortality by EPN infection. The ability of IJs to complete their lifecycle in vivo, and their ability to produce a new cohort of IJs, suggests that they may be able to provide persistent control in favourable environments. Observations on the biology and ecology of P. graminea in grapevine, suggests that they do not have a soil stage and only a single generation per year. Plangia graminea were mainly reported from the Cape Winelands region in the Western Cape province of South Africa, from where they were collected in an attempt to establish a laboratory colony. They did not perform well in captivity, therefore field collected individuals had to be used in laboratory bioassays. Observations on L. vanillana suggests that this species also does not have a soil stage. They seem to have a generational life cycle of 4-5 weeks and to overwinter as pupae. Lobesia vanillana was successfully reared from field-collected larvae using an agar-based modified codling moth diet. The present study contributes to new knowledge of P. graminea and L. vanillana, and indicates that EPNs are promising as biological control agents when considered as part of an integrated pest management program.