Browsing by Author "Dizon, J. M."
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- ItemBarriers and enablers for the development and implementation of allied health clinical practice guidelines in South African primary healthcare settings : a qualitative study(BioMed Central, 2017) Dizon, J. M.; Grimmer, K.; Louw, Q.; Machingaidze, S.; Parker, H.; Pillen, H.Background: The South African allied health (AH) primary healthcare (PHC) workforce is challenged with the complex rehabilitation needs of escalating patient numbers. The application of evidence-based care using clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is one way to make efficient and effective use of resources. Although CPGs are common for AH in high-income countries, there is limited understanding of how to do this in low- to middle-income countries. This paper describes barriers and enablers for AH CPG uptake in South African PHC. Methods: Semi-structured individual interviews were undertaken with 25 South African AH managers, policymakers, clinicians and academics to explore perspectives on CPGs. Interviews were conducted by researcher dyads, one being familiar with South African AH PHC practice and the other with CPG expertise. Rigour and transparency of data collection was ensured. Interview transcripts were analysed by structuring content into codes, categories and themes. Exemplar quotations were extracted to support themes. Results: CPGs were generally perceived to be relevant to assist AH providers to address the challenges of consistently providing evidence-based care in South African PHC settings. CPGs were considered to be tools for managing clinical, social and economic complexities of AH PHC practice, particularly if CPG recommendations were contextusalised. CPG uptake was one way to deal with increasing pressures to make efficient use of scarce financial resources, and to demonstrate professional legitimacy. Themes comprised organisational infrastructures and capacities for CPG uptake, interactions between AH actors and interaction with broader political structures, the nature of AH evidence in CPGs, and effectively implementing CPGs into practice. Conclusion: CPGs contextualised to local circumstances offer South African PHC AH services with an efficient vehicle for putting evidence into practice. There are challenges to doing this, related to local barriers such as geography, AH training, workforce availability, scarce resources, an escalating number of patients requiring complex rehabilitation, and local knowledge. Concerted attempts to implement locally relevant CPGs for AH primary care in South Africa are required to improve widespread commitment to evidence-based care, as well as to plan efficient and effective service delivery models.
- ItemBuilding capacity for development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines(Health and Medical Publishing Group, 2017) Louw, Q.; Dizon, J. M.; Grimmer, K.; McCaul, M.; Kredo, T.; Young, T.Robust, reliable and transparent methodologies are necessary to ensure that clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) meet international criteria. In South Africa (SA) and other low- and middle-income countries, upskilling and training of individuals in the processes of CPG development is needed. Since de novo CPG development is time-consuming and expensive, new emerging CPG-development approaches (adopting, contextualising, adapting and updating existing good-quality CPGs) are potentially more appropriate for our context. These emerging CPG-development methods are either not included or sparsely covered in existing training opportunities. The SA Guidelines Excellence (SAGE) team has responded innovatively to the need for CPG training in SA. We have revised an existing SA course and developed an online, open-access CPG-development toolkit. This Guideline Toolkit is a comprehensive guideline resource designed to assist individuals who are interested in knowing how to develop CPGs. Findings from the SAGE project can now be implemented with this innovative CPG training programme. This level of CPG capacity development has the potential to influence CPG knowledge, development, practices and uptake by clinicians, managers, academics and policy-makers around the country.
- ItemSouth African primary health care allied health clinical practice guidelines : the big picture(BioMed Central, 2018-01-29) Dizon, J. M.; Grimmer, K. A.; Machingaidze, S.; Louw, Q. A.; Parker, H.Background: Good quality clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are a vehicle to implementing evidence into allied health (AH) care. This paper reports on the current ‘state of play’ of CPGs in a lower-to-middle-income country (South Africa), where primary healthcare (PHC) AH activities face significant challenges in terms of ensuring quality service delivery in the face of huge PHC need. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted, using semi-structured interviews with purposively-sampled individuals involved in AH PHC CPGs in South Africa. They included national and state government policy-makers, academics and educators, service managers, clinicians, representatives of professional associations, technical writers, and members of informal professional networks. The interview data was transcribed and de-identified, and analysed descriptively by hand-coding. The COREQ statement guided study conduct and reporting. A framework to guide research in other countries into perspectives of AH PHC CPG activities was established. Results: Of the 32 invited, 29 people participated: of these 25 were interviewed and four provided meeting notes. Most participants had multiple professional roles, being engaged concurrently in clinical practice, academia, professional associations and / or government. Key themes comprised Players (sub-themes of sampling frame, participants, advice, role players and collaboration); Guidance (sub-themes of nomenclature, drivers, purpose, evidence sources) and Role of AH in PHC (sub-themes of discipline groupings, disability and rehabilitation, AH recognition). Conclusion: There was consistently-expressed desire for quality guidance to support better quality AH PHC activities around the country. However no international CPGs were used, and there were no South African CPGs specific to local PHC AH practice. The guidance gap was filled by non-evidence-based documents produced often without training, to deal with specific clinical situations. This led to frustration, duplication and fragmentation of effort, confusing nomenclature, and an urgent need for standardised and agreed guidance. We provided a standardised framework to capture perspectives on CPGs activities in other AH PHC settings.
- ItemStandardising evidence strength grading for recommendations from multiple clinical practice guidelines : a South African case study(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2018-08-29) Grimmer, K.; Louw, Q.; Dizon, J. M.; van Niekerk, S. M.; Ernstzen, D.; Wiysonge, Charles S.Background: Significant resources are required to write de novo clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). There are many freely-available CPGs internationally, for many health conditions. Developing countries rarely have the resources for de novo CPGs, and there could be efficiencies in using CPGs developed elsewhere. This paper outlines a novel process developed and tested in a resource-constrained country (South Africa) to synthesise findings from multiple international CPGs on allied health (AH) stroke rehabilitation. Methods: Methodologists, policy-makers, content experts and consumers collaborated to describe the pathway of an ‘average’ stroke patient through the South African public healthcare system and pose questions about bestpractice stroke rehabilitation along this pathway. A comprehensive search identified international guidance documents published since January 2010. These were scanned for relevance to the South African AH stroke rehabilitation questions and critically appraised for methodological quality. Recommendations were extracted from guidance documents for each question. Strength of the body of evidence (SoBE) gradings underpinning recommendations were standardised, and composite recommendations were developed using qualitative synthesis. An algorithm was developed to guide assignment of overall SoBE gradings to composite recommendations. Results: Sixteen CPGs were identified, and all were included, as they answered different project questions differently. Methodological quality varied and was unrelated to currency. Seven clusters, outlining 20 composite recommendations were proposed (organise for best practice rehabilitation, operationalise strategies for best practice communication throughout the patient journey, admit to an acute hospital, refer to inpatient rehabilitation, action inpatient rehabilitation, discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and longer-term community-based rehabilitation). Conclusion: The methodological development process, tested by writing a South African AH stroke rehabilitation guideline from existing evidence sources, took 9 months. The process was efficient, collaborative, effective, rewarding and positive. Using the proposed methods, similar synthesis of existing evidence could be conducted in shorter time periods, in other resource-constrained countries, avoiding the need for expensive and time-consuming de novo CPG development.