Browsing by Author "Demers, Anne-Marie"
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- ItemDirect susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Pyrazinamide by Use of the Bactec MGIT 960 system(American Society for Microbiology, 2016-05) Demers, Anne-Marie; Venter, Amour; Friedrich, Sven O.; Rojas-Ponce, Gabriel; Mapamba, Daniel; Jugheli, Levan; Sasamalo, Mohammed; Almeida, Deepak; Dorasamy, Afton; Jentsch, Ute; Gibson, Mara; Everitt, Daniel; Eisenach, Kathleen D.; Diacon, Andreas H.Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a key antituberculosis drug, yet no rapid susceptibility test is commercially available. PZA drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed directly on sputum samples from 327 patients and compared with the indirect method by using the Bactec MGIT 960 system in the context of patient screening for participation in a drug trial. Compared to standard indirect PZA DST, direct DST was successful in only 59% of cases, but results obtained were highly accurate and available faster. Agreement between the direct and indirect methods varied from 90 to 100% in each laboratory. The median times for obtaining PZA results from the time when the specimen was collected ranged from 11 to 16 days for the direct test and 18 to 95 days for the indirect test across laboratories. The direct method is accurate and reproducible across laboratories. It can be expected to accelerate results in >50% of cases, but it cannot replace indirect DST for PZA. Phenotypic methods remain the gold standard for DST in drug trials. If future studies can optimize the method to decrease the number of uninterpretable results, direct MGIT DST could be the new phenotypic DST standard for clinical trials, providing more rapid detection of resistance to new drugs in experimental regimens.
- ItemDrug susceptibility patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from adults with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and implications for a household contact preventive therapy trial(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2021-02-24) Demers, Anne-Marie; Kim, Soyeon; McCallum, Sara; Eisenach, Kathleen; Hughes, Michael; Naini, Linda; Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto; Pradhan, Neeta; Narunsky, Kim; Poongulali, Selvamuthu; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Upton, Caryn; Smith, Elizabeth; Shah, N. S.; Churchyard, Gavin; Gupta, Amita; Hesseling, Anneke; Swindells, SusanBackground: Drug susceptibility testing (DST) patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) from patients with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) or multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB; or resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid (INH)), are important to guide preventive therapy for their household contacts (HHCs). Methods: As part of a feasibility study done in preparation for an MDR-TB preventive therapy trial in HHCs, smear, Xpert MTB/RIF, Hain MTBDRplus, culture and DST results of index MDR-TB patients were obtained from routine TB programs. A sputum sample was collected at study entry and evaluated by the same tests. Not all tests were performed on all specimens due to variations in test availability. Results: Three hundred eight adults with reported RR/MDR-TB were enrolled from 16 participating sites in 8 countries. Their median age was 36 years, and 36% were HIV-infected. Routine testing on all 308 were confirmed as having RR-TB, but only 75% were documented as having MDR-TB. The majority of those not classified as having MDR-TB were because only rifampicin resistance was tested. At study entry (median 59 days after MDR-TB treatment initiation), 280 participants (91%) were able to produce sputum for the study, of whom 147 (53%) still had detectable MTB. All but 2 of these 147 had rifampicin DST done, with resistance detected in 89%. Almost half (47%) of the 147 specimens had INH DST done, with 83% resistance. Therefore, 20% of the 280 study specimens had MDR-TB confirmed. Overall, DST for second-line drugs were available in only 35% of the 308 routine specimens and 15% of 280 study specimens. Conclusions: RR-TB was detected in all routine specimens but only 75% had documented MDR-TB, illustrating the need for expanded DST beyond Xpert MTB/RIF to target preventive therapy for HHC.
- ItemHigh yield of culture-based diagnosis in a TB-endemic setting(BioMed Central, 2012-09) Demers, Anne-Marie; Verver, Suzanne; Boulle, Andrew; Warren, Robin; Van Helden, Paul; Behr, Marcel A.; Coetzee, DavidAbstract Background In most of the world, microbiologic diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is limited to microscopy. Recent guidelines recommend culture-based diagnosis where feasible. Methods In order to evaluate the relative and absolute incremental diagnostic yield of culture-based diagnosis in a high-incidence community in Cape Town, South Africa, subjects evaluated for suspected TB had their samples processed for microscopy and culture over a 21 month period. Results For 2537 suspect episodes with 2 smears and 2 cultures done, 20.0% (508) had at least one positive smear and 29.9% (760) had at least one positive culture. One culture yielded 1.8 times more cases as 1 smear (relative yield), or an increase of 12.0% (absolute yield). Based on the latter value, the number of cultures needed to diagnose (NND) one extra case of TB was 8, compared to 19 if second specimens were submitted for microscopy. Conclusion In a high-burden setting, the introduction of culture can markedly increase TB diagnosis over microscopy. The concept of number needed to diagnose can help in comparing incremental yield of diagnosis methods. Although new promising diagnostic molecular methods are being implemented, TB culture is still the gold standard.
- ItemLevofloxacin versus placebo for the prevention of tuberculosis disease in child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis : study protocol for a phase III cluster randomised controlled trial (TB-CHAMP)(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2018-12-20) Seddon, James A.; Garcia-Prats, Anthony J.; Purchase, Susan E.; Osman, Muhammad; Demers, Anne-Marie; Hoddinott, Graeme; Crook, Angela M.; Owen-Powell, Ellen; Thomason, Margaret J.; Turkova, Anna; Gibb, Diana M.; Fairlie, Lee; Martinson, Neil; Schaaf, H. Simon; Hesseling, Anneke C.Background: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) presents a challenge for global TB control. Treating individuals with MDR-TB infection to prevent progression to disease could be an effective public health strategy. Young children are at high risk of developing TB disease following infection and are commonly infected by an adult in their household. Identifying young children with household exposure to MDR-TB and providing them with MDR-TB preventive therapy could reduce the risk of disease progression. To date, no trials of MDR-TB preventive therapy have been completed and World Health Organization guidelines suggest close observation with no active treatment. Methods: The tuberculosis child multidrug-resistant preventive therapy (TB-CHAMP) trial is a phase III cluster randomised placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of levofloxacin in young child contacts of MDR-TB cases. The trial is taking place at three sites in South Africa where adults with MDR-TB are identified. If a child aged < 5 years lives in their household, we assess the adult index case, screen all household members for TB disease and evaluate any child aged < 5 years for trial eligibility. Eligible children are randomised by household to receive daily levofloxacin (15–20 mg/kg) or matching placebo for six months. Children are closely monitored for disease development, drug tolerability and adverse events. The primary endpoint is incident TB disease or TB death by one year after recruitment. We will enrol 1556 children from approximately 778 households with an average of two eligible children per household. Recruitment will run for 18–24 months with all children followed for 18 months after treatment. Qualitative and health economic evaluations are embedded in the trial. Discussion: If the TB-CHAMP trial demonstrates that levofloxacin is effective in preventing TB disease in young children who have been exposed to MDR-TB and that it is safe, well tolerated, acceptable and cost-effective, we would expect that that this intervention would rapidly transfer into policy.
- ItemShorter treatment for minimal tuberculosis (TB) in children (SHINE) : a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial(BioMed Central, 2018-04-19) Chabala, Chishala; Turkova, Anna; Thomason, Margaret J.; Wobudeya, Eric; Hissar, Syed; Mave, Vidya; Van Der Zalm, Marieke; Palmer, Megan; Kapasa, Monica; Bhavani, Perumal K.; Balaji, Sarath; Raichur, Priyanka A.; Demers, Anne-Marie; Hoddinott, Graeme; Owen-Powell, Ellen; Kinikar, Aarti; Musoke, Philippa; Mulenga, Veronica; Aarnoutse, Rob; McIlleron, Helen; Hesseling, Anneke; Crook, Angela M.; Cotton, Mark; Gibb, Diana M.Background: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is frequently paucibacillary and non-severe forms of pulmonary TB are common. Evidence for tuberculosis treatment in children is largely extrapolated from adult studies. Trials in adults with smear-negative tuberculosis suggest that treatment can be effectively shortened from 6 to 4 months. New paediatric, fixed-dose combination anti-tuberculosis treatments have recently been introduced in many countries, making the implementation of World Health Organisation (WHO)-revised dosing recommendations feasible. The safety and efficacy of these higher drug doses has not been systematically assessed in large studies in children, and the pharmacokinetics across children representing the range of weights and ages should be confirmed. Methods/design: SHINE is a multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, non-inferiority, randomised controlled, two-arm trial comparing a 4-month vs the standard 6-month regimen using revised WHO paediatric anti-tuberculosis drug doses. We aim to recruit 1200 African and Indian children aged below 16 years with non-severe TB, with or without HIV infection. The primary efficacy and safety endpoints are TB disease-free survival 72 weeks post randomisation and grade 3 or 4 adverse events. Nested pharmacokinetic studies will evaluate anti-tuberculosis drug concentrations, providing model-based predictions for optimal dosing, and measure antiretroviral exposures in order to describe the drug-drug interactions in a subset of HIV-infected children. Socioeconomic analyses will evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention and social science studies will further explore the acceptability and palatability of these new paediatric drug formulations. Discussion: Although recent trials of TB treatment-shortening in adults with sputum-positivity have not been successful, the question has never been addressed in children, who have mainly paucibacillary, non-severe smearnegative disease. SHINE should inform whether treatment-shortening of drug-susceptible TB in children, regardless of HIV status, is efficacious and safe. The trial will also fill existing gaps in knowledge on dosing and acceptability of new anti-tuberculosis formulations and commonly used HIV drugs in settings with a high burden of TB. A positive result from this trial could simplify and shorten treatment, improve adherence and be cost-saving for many children with TB.
- ItemStool culture for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children(American Society for Microbiology, 2017-12) Walters, Elisabetta; Demers, Anne-Marie; Van der Zalm, Marieke M.; Whitelaw, Andrew; Palmer, Megan; Bosch, Corne; Draper, Heather R.; Gie, Robert P.; Hesseling, Anneke C.Bacteriological confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is achieved in the minority of young children with tuberculosis (TB), since specimen collection is resource intensive and respiratory secretions are mostly paucibacillary, leading to limited sensitivity of available diagnostic tests. Although molecular tests are increasingly available globally, mycobacterial culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis and determination of drug susceptibility and is more sensitive than molecular methods for paucibacillary TB. We evaluated stool culture as an alternative to respiratory specimens for the diagnosis of suspected intrathoracic TB in a subgroup of 188 children (median age, 14.4 months; 15.4% HIV infected) enrolled in a TB diagnostic study at two local hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa. One stool culture was compared to overall bacteriological confirmation by stool Xpert and by Xpert and culture of multiple respiratory specimens. After decontamination/digestion with NALC (N-acetyl-l-cysteine)-NaOH (1.25%), concentrated fluorescent smear microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF, and liquid culture were completed for all specimens. Culture contamination of stool specimens was high at 41.5%. Seven of 90 (7.8%) children initiating TB treatment were stool culture positive for M. tuberculosis. Excluding contaminated cultures, the sensitivity of stool culture versus confirmed TB was 6/25 (24.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.4 to 45.1%). In addition, stool culture detected TB in 1/93 (1.1%) children with “unconfirmed TB.” Testing the same stool by Xpert increased sensitivity to 33.3% (95% CI = 18.0 to 51.8%). In conclusion, stool culture had low sensitivity for M. tuberculosis detection in children with intrathoracic TB. Reducing culture contamination through improved laboratory protocols may enable more reliable estimates of its diagnostic utility.