Browsing by Author "De Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari"
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- ItemAdaptation and diagnostic potential of a commercial cat interferon gamma release assay for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in African lions (Panthera leo)(MDPI, 2022-07) Gumbo, Rachiel; Sylvester, Tashnica T.; Goosen, Wynand J.; Buss, Peter E.; De Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Van Schalkwyk, O. Louis; McCall, Alicia; Warren, Robin M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Miller, Michele A.; Kerr, Tanya J.Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection in wildlife, including lions (Panthera leo), has implications for individual and population health. Tools for the detection of infected lions are needed for diagnosis and disease surveillance. This study aimed to evaluate the Mabtech Cat interferon gamma (IFN-γ) ELISABasic kit for detection of native lion IFN-γ in whole blood samples stimulated using the QuantiFERON® TB Gold Plus (QFT) platform as a potential diagnostic assay. The ELISA was able to detect lion IFN-γ in mitogen-stimulated samples, with good parallelism, linearity, and a working range of 15.6–500 pg/mL. Minimal matrix interference was observed in the recovery of domestic cat rIFN-γ in lion plasma. Both intra- and inter-assay reproducibility had a coefficient of variation less than 10%, while the limit of detection and quantification were 7.8 pg/mL and 31.2 pg/mL, respectively. The diagnostic performance of the QFT Mabtech Cat interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) was determined using mycobacterial antigen-stimulated samples from M. bovis culture-confirmed infected (n = 8) and uninfected (n = 4) lions. A lion-specific cut-off value (33 pg/mL) was calculated, and the sensitivity and specificity were determined to be 87.5% and 100%, respectively. Although additional samples should be tested, the QFT Mabtech Cat IGRA could identify M. bovisinfected African lions.
- ItemCytokine gene expression assay as a diagnostic tool for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus)(Nature Research (part of Springer Nature), 2019) Roos, Eduard O .; Scott, Leere A.; Ndou, Sedzani; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Buss, Peter E.; De Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Warren, Robin M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Sylvester, Tashnica T .; Miller, Michele A.; Parsons, Sven D. C.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium bovis infection has been described in many wildlife species across Africa. However, diagnostic tests are lacking for many of these, including warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus). Most literature on suids has focused on using serological tools, with few studies investigating the use of cell-mediated immune response (CMI) assays. A recent study showed that warthogs develop measurable CMI responses, which suggests that cytokine gene expression assays (GEAs) may be valuable for detecting M. bovis-infection, as shown in numerous African wildlife species. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop GEAs capable of distinguishing between M. bovis-infected and uninfected warthogs. Whole blood was stimulated using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold (In-Tube) system, using ESAT-6 and CFP-10 peptides, before determining the relative gene expression of five reference (B2M, H3F3A, LDHA, PPIA and YWHAZ) and five target (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, IFNG and TNFA) genes through qPCR. The reference gene H3F3A was the most stably expressed, while all target genes were significantly upregulated in M. bovis-infected warthogs with the greatest upregulation observed for CXCL10. Consequently, the CXCL10 GEA shows promise as an ante-mortem diagnostic tool for the detection of M. bovis-infected warthogs.
- ItemExperimental Mycobacterium bovis infection in three white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) : Susceptibility, clinical and anatomical pathology(Public Library of Science, 2017) Michel, Anita L.; Lane, Emily P.; De Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Hofmeyr, Markus; Van Der Heijden, Elisabeth M. D. L.; Botha, Louise; Van Helden, Paul; Miller, Michele Ann; Buss, Peter E.Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is endemic in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population in the Kruger National Park and other conservation areas in South Africa. The disease has been diagnosed in a total of 21 free ranging or semi-free ranging wildlife species in the country with highly variable presentations in terms of clinical signs as well as severity and distribution of tuberculous lesions. Most species are spillover or dead-end hosts without significant role in the epidemiology of the disease. White rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) are translocated from the Kruger National Park in substantial numbers every year and a clear understanding of their risk to manifest overt tuberculosis disease and to serve as source of infection to other species is required. We report the findings of experimental infection of three white rhinoceroses with a moderately low dose of a virulent field isolate of Mycobacterium bovis. None of the animals developed clinical signs or disseminated disease. The susceptibility of the white rhinoceros to bovine tuberculosis was confirmed by successful experimental infection based on the ante mortem isolation of M. bovis from the respiratory tract of one rhinoceros, the presence of acid-fast organisms and necrotizing granulomatous lesions in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes and the detection of M. bovis genetic material by PCR in the lungs of two animals.
- ItemMeasuring antigen-specific responses in Mycobacterium bovis-infected warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) using the intradermal tuberculin test(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2018) Roos, Eduard O.; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Buss, Peter E.; Hausler, Guy; Warren, Robin M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Parsons, Sven D. C.; De Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Miller, Michele AnnBackground: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis has previously been diagnosed in warthogs and infection can be highly prevalent (> 30%) in endemic areas. Thus, warthogs could potentially be an important species to consider as sentinels for disease surveillance. However, disease surveillance is dependent on availability of accurate diagnostic assays and only a few diagnostic tests have been investigated for warthogs. Furthermore, the tests that have been used in this species require laboratory equipment and trained personnel to obtain results. Therefore, this study investigated the use of the intradermal tuberculin test (ITT) to screen warthogs for bTB, which can be done with minimal equipment and under field conditions by most veterinarians and other qualified professionals. Changes in skin fold thickness measurements at the bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) administration site, between 0 and 72 h, were compared with differential changes between the bovine and avian PPD sites, for 34 warthogs, to evaluate the performance when different interpretation criteria for the ITT was used. Results: Using an increase of 1.8 mm or more at the bovine PPD site as a cut-off for positive responders, 69% of 16 M. bovis culture-positive warthogs had a positive test result, with 100% of the 18 culture-negative warthogs considered as test negative. When a differential of 1.2 mm or more in skin fold thickness at the bovine PPD compared to the avian PPD site was used as a cut-off for the comparative ITT, 81% of culture-positive warthogs were considered as test positive, with 100% of culture-negative warthogs considered as test negative. Conclusion: The findings in this study suggest that the ITT is a promising tool to use when screening warthogs for M. bovis infection.