Browsing by Author "Crotti, Lia"
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- ItemAn investigation of the clinical profile and extent of Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) associated with the KCNQ1-A341V mutation in South Africa and with the KCNH2-A1116V mutation in an Italian family and the role that autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and genetics play in clinical variability(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2007-12) Crotti, Lia; Brink, Paul A.; Schwartz, Peter J.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Health Sciences. Dept. of Medicine. Internal Medicine.Background Although great progress has been made in defining genes conferring the majority of genetic risk in Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) patients, there remains a substantial challenge to explain the widely observed variability in disease expression and phenotype severity, even among family members, sharing the same mutation. Identifying clinical and genetic variables capable of influencing/predicting the clinical phenotype of LQTS patients would allow a more accurate risk stratification, important for determining prognosis, selecting patients for the most appropriate therapy, and counseling asymptomatic mutation carriers (MCs). To address these questions an Italian LQT2 family and a South African Founder LQT1 population have been used. Methods and Results Italian LQT2 family. The proband, a 44-yr-old white woman, presented with ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest. Intermittent QT prolongation was subsequently observed and LQT2 was diagnosed following the identification of a missense KCNH2 mutation (A1116V). The proband also carried the common KCNH2 polymorphism K897T on the non-mutant allele. Relatives who carried A1116V without K897T were asymptomatic but some exhibited transient mild QTc prolongation suggesting latent disease. Expression studies in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, demonstrated that the presence of KCNH2-K897T is predicted to exaggerate the IKr reduction caused by the A1116V mutation. These data explain why symptomatic LQTS occurred only in the proband carrying both alleles. South African LQT1 population. The study population involved 320 subjects, 166 MCs and 154 non mutation carriers (NMCs). Off ß-blocker therapy, MCs had a wide range of QTc values (406-676 ms) and a QTc>500 ms was associated with increased risk for cardiac events (OR=4.22; 95%CI 1.12-15.80; p=0.033). We also found that MCs with a heart rate <73 bpm were at significantly lower risk (OR=0.23; 95%CI 0.06-0.86; p=0.035). In a subgroup of patients Baroreflex Sensitivity (BRS) was determined both in presence and absence of ß-blocker therapy. BRS, analyzed in subjects in the 2nd and 3rd age quartiles (age 26-47) to avoid the influence of age, was lower among asymptomatic than symptomatic MCs (11.8±3.5 vs 20.1±10.9 ms/mmHg, p<0.05). A BRS in the lower tertile carried a lower risk of cardiac events (OR 0.13, 95%CI 0.02-0.96; p<0.05). This study also unexpectedly determined that KCNQ1-A341V was associated with greater risk than that reported for large databases of LQT1 patients: A341V MCs were more symptomatic by age 40 (79% vs 30%) and became symptomatic earlier (7±4 vs 13±9 years), both p<0.001. Accordingly, functional studies of KCNQ1-A341V in CHO cells with KCNE1, identified a dominant negative effect of the mutation on wild-type channels. Conclusion Our findings indicate that risk stratification for LQTS patients must be more individually tailored and may have to take into account the specific mutation and probably additional clinical and genetic variables capable of influencing/predicting the clinical phenotype of LQTS patients. As a matter of fact, we have provided evidence that a common KCNH2 polymorphism may modify the clinical expression of a latent LQT2 mutation and the availability of an extended kindred with a common mutation allowed us to highlight that KCNQ1-A341V is associated with an unusually severe clinical phenotype and to identify two autonomic markers, HR and BRS, as novel risk factors.
- ItemLow-Pass filtering approach via empirical mode decomposition improves short-scale entropy-based complexity estimation of QT interval variability in long QT syndrome type 1 patients(MDPI, 2014-09-05) Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Girardengo, Giulia; George, Alfred L.; Brink, Paul A.; Cerutti, Sergio; Crotti, Lia; Schwartz, Peter J.; Porta, AlbertoEntropy-based complexity of cardiovascular variability at short time scales is largely dependent on the noise and/or action of neural circuits operating at high frequencies. This study proposes a technique for canceling fast variations from cardiovascular variability, thus limiting the effect of these overwhelming influences on entropy-based complexity. The low-pass filtering approach is based on the computation of the fastest intrinsic mode function via empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and its subtraction from the original variability. Sample entropy was exploited to estimate complexity. The procedure was applied to heart period (HP) and QT (interval from Q-wave onset to T-wave end) variability derived from 24-hour Holter recordings in 14 non-mutation carriers (NMCs) and 34 mutation carriers (MCs) subdivided into 11 asymptomatic MCs (AMCs) and 23 symptomatic MCs (SMCs). All individuals belonged to the same family developing long QT syndrome type 1 (LQT1) via KCNQ1-A341V mutation. We found that complexity indexes computed over EMD-filtered QT variability differentiated AMCs from NMCs and detected the effect of beta-blocker therapy, while complexity indexes calculated over EMD-filtered HP variability separated AMCs from SMCs. The EMD-based filtering method enhanced features of the cardiovascular control that otherwise would have remained hidden by the dominant presence of noise and/or fast physiological variations, thus improving classification in LQT1.
- ItemMultiscale complexity analysis of the cardiac control identifies asymptomatic and symptomatic patients in long QT syndrome type 1(PLoS, 2014-04-04) Bari, Vlasta; Valencia, Jose F.; Vallverdu, Montserrat; Girardengo, Giulia; Marchi, Andrea; Bassani, Tito; Caminal, Pere; Cerutti, Sergio; George, Alfred L.; Brink, Paul A.; Crotti, Lia; Schwartz, Peter J.; Porta, AlbertoThe study assesses complexity of the cardiac control directed to the sinus node and to ventricles in long QT syndrome type 1 (LQT1) patients with KCNQ1-A341V mutation. Complexity was assessed via refined multiscale entropy (RMSE) computed over the beat-to-beat variability series of heart period (HP) and QT interval. HP and QT interval were approximated respectively as the temporal distance between two consecutive R-wave peaks and between the R-wave apex and T-wave end. Both measures were automatically taken from 24-hour electrocardiographic Holter traces recorded during daily activities in non mutation carriers (NMCs, n = 14) and mutation carriers (MCs, n = 34) belonging to a South African LQT1 founder population. The MC group was divided into asymptomatic (ASYMP, n = 11) and symptomatic (SYMP, n = 23) patients according to the symptom severity. Analyses were carried out during daytime (DAY, from 2PM to 6PM) and nighttime (NIGHT, from 12PM to 4AM) off and on beta-adrenergic blockade (BBoff and BBon). We found that the complexity of the HP variability at short time scale was under vagal control, being significantly increased during NIGHT and BBon both in ASYMP and SYMP groups, while the complexity of both HP and QT variability at long time scales was under sympathetic control, being smaller during NIGHT and BBon in SYMP subjects. Complexity indexes at long time scales in ASYMP individuals were smaller than those in SYMP ones regardless of therapy (i.e. BBoff or BBon), thus suggesting that a reduced complexity of the sympathetic regulation is protective in ASYMP individuals. RMSE analysis of HP and QT interval variability derived from routine 24-hour electrocardiographic Holter recordings might provide additional insights into the physiology of the cardiac control and might be fruitfully exploited to improve risk stratification in LQT1 population.
- ItemA refined multiscale self-entropy approach for the assessment of cardiac control complexity : application to long QT syndrome type 1 patients(MDPI, 2015-11-13) Bari, Vlasta; Girardengo, Giulia; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Brink, Paul A.; Crotti, Lia; Schwartz, Peter J.; Porta, AlbertoENGLISH ABSTRACT: The study proposes the contemporaneous assessment of conditional entropy (CE) and self-entropy (sE), being the two terms of the Shannon entropy (ShE) decomposition, as a function of the time scale via refined multiscale CE (RMSCE) and sE (RMSsE) with the aim at gaining insight into cardiac control in long QT syndrome type 1 (LQT1) patients featuring the KCNQ1-A341V mutation. CE was estimated via the corrected CE (CCE) and sE as the difference between the ShE and CCE. RMSCE and RMSsE were computed over the beat-to-beat series of heart period (HP) and QT interval derived from 24-hour Holter electrocardiographic recordings during daytime (DAY) and nighttime (NIGHT). LQT1 patients were subdivided into asymptomatic and symptomatic mutation carriers (AMCs and SMCs) according to the severity of symptoms and contrasted with non-mutation carriers (NMCs). We found that RMSCE and RMSsE carry non-redundant information, separate experimental conditions (i.e., DAY and NIGHT) within a given group and distinguish groups (i.e., NMC, AMC and SMC) assigned the experimental condition. Findings stress the importance of the joint evaluation of RMSCE and RMSsE over HP and QT variabilities to typify the state of the autonomic function and contribute to clarify differences between AMCs and SMCs.