Browsing by Author "Crane, Wendy"
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- ItemBiodiversity conservation and land rights in South Africa : whither the farm dwellers?(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2006-12) Crane, Wendy; Swilling, MarkENGLISH ABSTRACT: South Africa is unique in that its globally significant biodiversity, which is under major threat, coexists with an apartheid history of dispossession that produced a starkly unequal land ownership pattern and widespread rural poverty. It is in this context that the post-apartheid government must fulfil constitutional and international obligations to safeguard environmental assets as well as undertake land reform benefiting the previously dispossessed. Consequently, there is a continuous challenge of reconciling complex and often conflicting relationships between poverty, inequitable access to resources, and the protection of biodiversity. Current efforts to conserve the Cape Floral Kingdom emphasise partnerships between private landowners and existing nature reserves to promote sustainable utilisation of biodiversity. This paper explores the potential impact of this approach on farm dwellers, and how changing land use may affect their land tenure rights and livelihoods. Primary research was undertaken in the Baviaanskloof, where this model is in an early stage of implementation. The paper identifies systemic and structural tensions in current attempts to reconcile biodiversity conservation and farm dwellers’ interests, and documents issues of process and principle that could become important in the future. In doing so, it highlights the influence of on-farm power relations and highly complex institutional arrangements in determining the real extent of participation by affected farm dwellers and the efficacy of social safeguard policies. Findings also caution against an over-reliance on ecotourism as the major occupation and argues instead for support to multiple livelihood strategies.
- ItemDecoupling : natural resource use and environmental impacts from economic growth(United Nations Environment Programme, 2011-05) Fischer-Kowalski, Marina; Swilling, Mark; Von Weizsacker, Ernst Ulrich; Ren, Yong; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Crane, Wendy; Krausmann, Fridolin Krausmann; Eisenmenger, Nina; Giljum, Stefan; Hennicke, Peter; Kemp, Rene; Romero Lankao, Paty; Siriban Manalang, Anna Bella; Sewerin, SebastianBy 2050, humanity could devour an estimated 140 billion tons of minerals, ores, fossil fuels and biomass per year – three times its current appetite – unless the economic growth rate is “decoupled” from the rate of natural resource consumption. Developed countries citizens consume an average of 16 tons of those four key resources per capita (ranging up to 40 or more tons per person in some developed countries). By comparison, the average person in India today consumes four tons per year. With the growth of both population and prosperity, especially in developing countries, the prospect of much higher resource consumption levels is “far beyond what is likely sustainable” if realized at all given finite world resources, warns this report by UNEP’s International Resource Panel. Already the world is running out of cheap and high quality sources of some essential materials such as oil, copper and gold, the supplies of which, in turn, require ever-rising volumes of fossil fuels and freshwater to produce. Improving the rate of resource productivity (“doing more with less”) faster than the economic growth rate is the notion behind “decoupling,” the panel says. That goal, however, demands an urgent rethink of the links between resource use and economic prosperity, buttressed by a massive investment in technological, financial and social innovation, to at least freeze per capita consumption in wealthy countries and help developing nations follow a more sustainable path. - Source: http://www.unep.org/resourcepanel/Publications/Decoupling/tabid/56048/Default.aspx