Browsing by Author "Chidi, B. S."
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- ItemDetermining the impact of industrial wine yeast strains on organic acid production under white and red wine-like fermentation conditions(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2015) Chidi, B. S.; Rossouw, D.; Buica, A. S.; Bauer, FlorianOrganic acids are a major contributor to wine flavour and aroma. In the past, the scientific focus has mostly been on organic acids derived from grapes or on the transformation of malic acid to lactic acid by lactic acid bacteria, since these acids contribute significantly to the final total acidity of wine. However, the organic acid concentration and composition also change significantly during alcoholic fermentation, yet only limited information regarding the impact of different yeast strains on these changes has been published. Here we report on changes in organic acid (malic, tartaric, citric, succinic, acetic and pyruvic) composition during fermentation by five widely used industrial wine yeast strains in a synthetic grape must (MS300) reflecting two very different, but both wine-like, fermentation conditions. Samples were obtained from three physiological stages during fermentation, namely the exponential growth phase (day 2), early stationary phase (day 5) and late stationary phase (day 14). These different stages were selected to provide more information on acid evolution throughout fermentation, as well as on the impact of nutritional and environmental conditions during aerobic and anaerobic fermentation. Among other observations, some strains (such as VIN13 and 285) were shown to be generally higher producers of most acids in white and/ or red wine fermentation settings, while other strains (such as DV10) were generally lower acid producers. The data clearly demonstrate that different strains have different acid consumption and production patterns, and this presents a first step towards enabling winemakers to appropriately select strains for acid management during fermentation.
- ItemThe impact of changes in environmental conditions on organic acid production by commercial wine yeast strains(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2018) Chidi, B. S.; Bauer, Florian; Rossouw, D.Acidity is one of the primary sensory elements in wine, and the balance of sugar and acidity is probably the strongest element affecting wine appreciation. However, little is known about how yeast strains and fermentation conditions will affect the production of fermentation-derived acids, including acetic, succinic and pyruvic acid. This study employs a multifactorial experimental design to provide a better understanding of how individual or simultaneous changes in environmental parameters such as pH, sugar and temperature influence the production of individual organic acids during fermentation in several yeast strains in synthetic must. Certain changes in environmental factors led to conserved trends between strains and treatments. Strains produced higher succinic acid levels when temperature was increased. Significant strain-dependent differences were observed when sugar concentrations were varied for both strains: the combinatorial impact of high initial sugars and fermentation temperature was more pronounced when increased pyruvic acid production was observed in yeast strain VIN13. On the other hand, while combinatorial influences are evident, higher sugar fermentation settings were largely characterised by high acetic acid concentrations for both strains. It is clear that simultaneous changes in sugar, pH and temperature affect organic acid trends in a variable manner, depending on the particular combination of environmental parameters and yeast strain. The study provides valuable information regarding the manner in which initial must parameters and environmental conditions throughout fermentation may affect wine acidity. Since many of these parameters can be controlled at least in part during the winemaking process, the data provide important background information for oenological strategies that aim to optimise the acid balance of wines.
- ItemImpact of grape temperature at pressing on organic acids and oenological characteristics of Méthode Cap Classique wines(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2018) Chidi, B. S.; Mafata, M.; Notshokovu, N. Z.; Van Jaarsveld, F.Maintaining the chemical composition of a wine is essential for the wine industry. Although the sugar-acid balance of a wine is of primary sensory importance, individual acids and oenological parameters are equally important. The main focus of this study was to investigate the impact of grape temperature at harvest, on the oenological volatile acidity (VA), titratable acidity (TA), pH and alcohol levels and organic acid (citric, malic, pyruvic and succinic) characteristics of Méthode Cap Classique (MCC) wines during winemaking, produced from grape cultivars obtained from two regions. Chardonnay and Pinot noir grapes were obtained from Robertson (warmer) and Elgin (cooler) regions and were subjected to different temperature treatments, i.e. 0, 10, 25 and 30oC before further processing, including pressing, primary fermentation, blending, tirage, secondary fermentation, riddling and disgorging. Grape temperature was mostly responsible for a significantly higher pH of Robertson (0 and 10ºC) and lower pH (0ºC) of Elgin post-tirage wines. Chardonnay base wines from both regions that were vinified from grapes at lower temperatures (0 and 10oC) were richer in malic- and succinic acid, while Pinot noir wines from both regions were characterised by higher malic-, citric- and pyruvic acid. Pyruvic acid was only detected after the secondary fermentations in wines from both regions. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the influence of grape temperature on the oenological and organic acid characteristics of MCC wines in different regions, and throughout different production stages.
- ItemOrganic acid metabolism and the impact of fermentation practices on wine acidity : a review(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2018) Chidi, B. S.; Bauer, Florian; Rossouw, D.The conversion of grape sugar to ethanol and carbon dioxide is the primary biochemical reaction in alcoholic wine fermentation, but microbial interactions, as well as complex secondary metabolic reactions, are equally relevant in terms of the composition of the final wine produced. The chemical composition of a wine determines the taste, flavour and aroma of the product, and is determined by many factors such as grape variety, geographical and viticultural conditions, microbial ecology of the grapes and of the fermentation processes, and the winemaking practices. Through the years, major advances have been made in understanding the biochemistry, ecology, physiology and molecular biology of the various yeast strains involved in wine production, and how these yeasts affect wine chemistry and wine sensory properties. However, many important aspects of the impact of yeast on specific wine-relevant sensory parameters remain little understood. One of these areas of limited knowledge is the contribution of individual wine yeast strains to the total organic acid profile of wine. Wine quality is indeed very directly linked to what wine tasters frequently refer to as the sugar–acid balance. The total acidity of a wine is therefore of prime sensory importance, and acidity adjustments are a frequent and legal practice in many wineries. However, the total acidity is the result of the sum of all the individual organic acids that are present in wine. Importantly, each of these acids has its own sensory attributes, with descriptors ranging from fresh to sour to metallic. It is therefore important not only to consider total acidity, but also the contribution of each individual acid to the overall acid profile of the wine. This review will summarise the current knowledge about the origin, synthesis and analysis of organic acids in wine, as well as on the management of wine acidity.