Browsing by Author "Beyers, Nulda"
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- ItemAdherence to isoniazid preventive chemotherapy: a prospective community based study(BMJ Publishing Group, 2006-09) Marais, B. J.; Van Zyl, S.; Schaaf, H. Simon; Van Aardt, M. C.; Gie, R. P.; Beyers, NuldaBackground: Current international guidelines recommend 6–9 months of isoniazid (INH) preventive chemotherapy to prevent the development of active tuberculosis in children exposed to a susceptible strain of M tuberculosis. However, this is dependent on good adherence and retrospective studies have indicated that adherence to unsupervised INH preventive chemotherapy is poor. Aim: To prospectively document adherence to six months of unsupervised INH monotherapy and outcome in children with household exposure to an adult pulmonary tuberculosis index case. Methods: From February 2003 to January 2005 in two suburbs of Cape Town, South Africa, all children <5 years old in household contact with an adult pulmonary tuberculosis index case were screened for tuberculosis and given unsupervised INH preventive chemotherapy once active tuberculosis was excluded. Adherence and outcome were monitored. Results: In total, 217 index cases from 185 households were identified; 274 children <5 years old experienced household exposure, of whom 229 (84%) were fully evaluated. Thirty eight children were treated for tuberculosis and 180 received preventive chemotherapy. Of the children who received preventive chemotherapy, 36/180 (20%) completed ⩾5 months of unsupervised INH monotherapy. During the subsequent surveillance period six children developed tuberculosis: two received no preventive chemotherapy, and four had very poor adherence. Conclusion: Adherence to six months of unsupervised INH preventive chemotherapy was poor. Strategies to improve adherence, such as using shorter duration multidrug regimens and/or supervision of preventive treatment require further evaluation, particularly in children who are at high risk to progress to disease following exposure.
- ItemAdolescent tuberculosis(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 1996-3) Donald, P. R.; Beyers, Nulda; Rook, G. A. W.INTRODUCTION: One of the most intriguing features of the epidemiology of tuberculosis is the well-known variation in the age incidence of disease and the variation in the nature of the disease with age. During infancy and early childhood, tuberculous disease is particularly liable to follow infection and high morbidity and mortality are experienced. Disseminated forms of disease, such as miliary tuberculosis and tuberculous meningitis, are particularly likely to develop.
- ItemAge-disparity, sexual connectedness and HIV infection in disadvantaged communities around Cape Town, South Africa: A study protocol(BioMed Central Ltd, 2011) Delva, Wim; Beauclair, Roxanne; Welte, Alex; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Hens, Niel; Aerts, Marc; Du Toit, Elizabeth; Beyers, Nulda; Temmerman, MarleenAbstract: Background Crucial connections between sexual network structure and the distribution of HIV remain inadequately understood, especially in regard to the role of concurrency and age disparity in relationships, and how these network characteristics correlate with each other and other risk factors. Social desirability bias and inaccurate recall are obstacles to obtaining valid, detailed information about sexual behaviour and relationship histories. Therefore, this study aims to use novel research methods in order to determine whether HIV status is associated with age-disparity and sexual connectedness as well as establish the primary behavioural and socio-demographic predictors of the egocentric and community sexual network structures. Method/Design We will conduct a cross-sectional survey that uses a questionnaire exploring one-year sexual histories, with a focus on timing and age disparity of relationships, as well as other risk factors such as unprotected intercourse and the use of alcohol and recreational drugs. The questionnaire will be administered in a safe and confidential mobile interview space, using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) technology on touch screen computers. The ACASI features a choice of languages and visual feedback of temporal information. The survey will be administered in three peri-urban disadvantaged communities in the greater Cape Town area with a high burden of HIV. The study communities participated in a previous TB/HIV study, from which HIV test results will be anonymously linked to the survey dataset. Statistical analyses of the data will include descriptive statistics, linear mixed-effects models for the inter- and intra-subject variability in the age difference between sexual partners, survival analysis for correlated event times to model concurrency patterns, and logistic regression for association of HIV status with age disparity and sexual connectedness. Discussion This study design is intended to facilitate more accurate recall of sensitive sexual history data and has the potential to provide substantial insights into the relationship between key sexual network attributes and additional risk factors for HIV infection. This will help to inform the design of context-specific HIV prevention programmes.
- ItemAnnual risk of tuberculous infection using different methods in communities with a high prevalence of TB and HIV in Zambia and South Africa(Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2009-11) Shanaube, Kwame; Sisminidis, Charalambos; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Schaap, Ab; Lawrence, Katherine-Anne; Barker, Annie; Godfrey-Faussett, PeterBackground: The annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI) is a key epidemiological indicator of the extent of transmission in a community. Several methods have been suggested to estimate the prevalence of tuberculous infection using tuberculin skin test data. This paper explores the implications of using different methods to estimate prevalence of infection and ARTI. The effect of BCG vaccination on these estimates is also investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings: Tuberculin surveys among school children in 16 communities in Zambia and 8 in South Africa (SA) were performed in 2005, as part of baseline data collection and for randomisation purposes of the ZAMSTAR study. Infection prevalence and ARTI estimates were calculated using five methods: different cut-offs with or without adjustments for sensitivity, the mirror method, and mixture analysis. A total of 49,835 children were registered for the surveys, of which 25,048 (50%) had skin tests done and 22,563 (90%) of those tested were read. Infection prevalence was higher in the combined SA than Zambian communities. The mirror method resulted in the least difference of 7.8%, whereas that estimated by the cut-off methods varied from 12.2% to 17.3%. The ARTI in the Zambian and SA communities was between 0.8% and 2.8% and 2.5% and 4.2% respectively, depending on the method used. In the SA communities, the ARTI was higher among the younger children. BCG vaccination had little effect on these estimates. Conclusions/Significance: ARTI estimates are dependent on the calculation method used. All methods agreed that there were substantial differences in infection prevalence across the communities, with higher rates in SA. Although TB notification rates have increased over the past decades, the difference in cumulative exposure between younger and older children is less dramatic and a rise in risk of infection in parallel with the estimated incidence of active tuberculosis cannot be excluded. © 2009 Shanaube et al.
- ItemThe association of hyperglycaemia with prevalent tuberculosis : a population-based cross-sectional study(BioMed Central, 2016) Bailey, Sarah Lou; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Muyoyeta, Monde; Du Toit, Elizabeth; Yudkin, John S.; Floyd, SianBackground: Systematic reviews suggest that the incidence of diagnosed tuberculosis is two- to- three times higher in those with diabetes mellitus than in those without. Few studies have previously reported the association between diabetes or hyperglycaemia and the prevalence of active tuberculosis and none in a population-based study with microbiologically-defined tuberculosis. Most have instead concentrated on cases of diagnosed tuberculosis that present to health facilities. We had the opportunity to measure glycaemia alongside prevalent tuberculosis. A focus on prevalent tuberculosis enables estimation of the contribution of hyperglycaemia to the population prevalence of tuberculosis. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among adults in 24 communities from Zambia and the Western Cape (WC) province of South Africa. Prevalent tuberculosis was defined by the presence of a respiratory sample that was culture positive for M. tuberculosis. Glycaemia was measured by random blood glucose (RBG) concentration. Association with prevalent tuberculosis was explored across the whole spectrum of glycaemia. Results: Among 27,800 Zambian and 11,367 Western Cape participants, 4,431 (15.9%) and 1,835 (16.1%) respectively had a RBG concentration ≥7.0 mmol/L, and 405 (1.5%) and 322 (2.8%) respectively had a RBG concentration ≥11. 1 mmol/L. In Zambia, the prevalence of tuberculosis was 0 · 5% (142/27,395) among individuals with RBG concentration <11.1 mmol/L and also ≥11.1 mmol/L (2/405); corresponding figures for WC were 2 · 5% (272/11,045) and 4 · 0% (13/322). There was evidence for a positive linear association between hyperglycaemia and pulmonary prevalent tuberculosis. Taking a RBG cut-off 11.1 mmol/L, a combined analysis of data from Zambian and WC communities found evidence of association between hyperglycaemia and TB (adjusted odds ratio = 2 · 15, 95% CI [1 · 17–3 · 94]). The population attributable fraction of prevalent tuberculosis to hyperglycaemia for Zambia and WC combined was 0.99% (95% CI 0 · 12%–1.85%) for hyperglycaemia with a RBG cut-off of 11.1 mmol/L. Conclusions: This study demonstrates an association between hyperglycaemia and prevalent tuberculosis in a large population-based survey in Zambia and Western Cape. However, assuming causation, this association contributes little to the prevalence of TB in these populations.
- ItemAvailability and acceptability of HIV counselling and testing services. a qualitative study comparing clients’ experiences of accessing HIV testing at public sector primary health care facilities or non-governmental mobile services in Cape Town, South Africa(BioMed Central, 2015) Meehan, Sue-Ann; Leon, Natalie; Naidoo, Pren; Jennings, Karen; Burger, Ronelle; Beyers, NuldaBackground: The South African government is striving for universal access to HIV counselling and testing (HCT), a fundamental component of HIV care and prevention. In the Cape Town district, Western Cape Province of South Africa, HCT is provided free of charge at publically funded primary health care (PHC) facilities and through non-governmental organizations (NGOs). This study investigated the availability and accessibility of HCT services; comparing health seeking behaviour and client experiences of HCT across public PHC facilities (fixed sites) and NGO mobile services. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews. Systematic sampling was used to select 16 participants who accessed HCT in either a PHC facility (8) or a NGO mobile service (8). Interviews, conducted between March and June 2011, were digitally recorded, transcribed and where required, translated into English. Constant comparative and thematic analysis was used to identify common and divergent responses and themes in relation to the key questions (reasons for testing, choice of service provider and experience of HCT). Results: The sample consisted of 12 females and 4 males with an age range of 19–60 years (median age 28 years). Motivations for accessing health facilities and NGO services were similar; opportunity to test, being affected by HIV and a perceived personal risk for contracting HIV. Participants chose a particular service provider based on accessibility, familiarity with and acceptability of that service. Experiences of both services were largely positive, though instances of poor staff attitude and long waiting times were reported at PHC facilities. Those attending NGO services reported shorter waiting times and overall positive testing experiences. Concerns about lack of adequate privacy and associated stigma were expressed about both services. Conclusions: Realised access to HCT is dependent on availability and acceptability of HCT services. Those whoutilised either a NGO mobile service or a public PHC facility perceived both service types as available and acceptable. Mobile NGO services provided an accessible opportunity for those who would otherwise not have tested at that time. Policy makers should consider the perceptions and experiences of those accessing HCT services when increasing access to HCT.
- ItemBetter virological outcomes among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) initiating early antiretroviral Tteatment (CD4 Counts ≥500 Cells/µL) in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 071 (PopART) trial in South Africa(Oxford University Press, 2020-01-16) Fatti, Geoffrey; Grimwood, Ashraf; Nachega, Jean B.; Nelson, Jenna A.; LaSorda, Kelsea; van Zyl, Gert; Grobbelaar, Nelis; Ayles, Helen; Hayes, Richard; Beyers, Nulda; Fidler, Sarah; Bock, PeterBackground: There have been concerns about reduced adherence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virological suppression (VS) among clinically well people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with high pre-ART CD4 cell counts. We compared virological outcomes by pre-ART CD4 count, where universal ART initiation was provided in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 071 (PopART) trial in South Africa prior to routine national and international implementation. Methods: This prospective cohort study included adults initiating ART at facilities providing universal ART since January 2014. VS (<400 copies/mL), confirmed virological failure (VF) (2 consecutive viral loads >1000 copies/mL), and viral rebound were compared between participants in strata of baseline CD4 cell count. Results: The sample included 1901 participants. VS was ≥94% among participants with baseline CD4 count ≥500 cells/µL at all 6-month intervals to 30 months. The risk of an elevated viral load (≥400 copies/mL) was independently lower among participants with baseline CD4 count ≥500 cells/µL (3.3%) compared to those with CD4 count 200-499 cells/µL (9.2%) between months 18 and 30 (adjusted relative risk, 0.30 [95% confidence interval, .12-.74]; P = .010). The incidence rate of VF was 7.0, 2.0, and 0.5 per 100 person-years among participants with baseline CD4 count <200, 200-499, and ≥500 cells/µL, respectively (P < .0001). VF was independently lower among participants with baseline CD4 count ≥500 cells/µL (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.23; P = .045) and 3-fold higher among those with baseline CD4 count <200 cells/µL (aHR, 3.49; P < .0001). Conclusions: Despite previous concerns, participants initiating ART with CD4 counts ≥500 cells/µL had very good virological outcomes, being better than those with CD4 counts 200-499 cells/µL. Clinical trials registration: NCT01900977.
- ItemCharacteristics of clients who access mobile compared to clinic HIV counselling and testing services : a matched study from Cape Town, South Africa(BioMed Central, 2014-12) Meehan, Sue-Ann; Naidoo, Pren; Claassens, Mareli; Lombard, Carl; Beyers, NuldaBackground: Studies within sub-Saharan African countries have shown that mobile services increase uptake of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) services when compared to clinics and are able to access different populations, but these have included provider-initiated HCT in clinics. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of clients who self-initiated HCT at either a mobile or a clinic service in terms of demographic and socio-economic variables, also comparing reasons for accessing a particular health service provider. Methods: This study took place in eight areas around Cape Town. A matched design was used with one mobile HCT service matched with one or more clinics (offering routine HCT services) within each of the eight areas. Adult clients who self-referred for an HIV test within a specified time period at either a mobile or clinic service were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected between February and April 2011 using a questionnaire. Summary statistics were calculated for each service type within a matched pair and differences of outcomes from pairs were used to calculate effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals. Results: 1063 participants enrolled in the study with 511 from mobile and 552 from clinic HCT services. The proportion of males accessing mobile HCT significantly exceeded that of clinic HCT (p < 0.001). The mean age of participants attending mobile HCT was higher than clinic participants (p = 0.023). No significant difference was found for socio-economic variables between participants, with the exception of access to own piped water (p = 0.029). Participants who accessed mobile HCT were significantly more likely to report that they were just passing, deemed an “opportunistic” visit (p = 0.014). Participants who accessed clinics were significantly more likely to report the service being close to home or work (p = 0.035). Conclusions: An HCT strategy incorporating a mobile HCT service, has a definite role to play in reaching those population groups who do not typically access HCT services at a clinic, especially males and those who take advantage of the opportunity to test. Mobile HCT services can complement clinic services.
- ItemChildhood tuberculosis in South Africa : what is the present status?(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2007-10) Gie, Robert P.; Zar, Heather; Jeena, Prakash; Beyers, NuldaIn a recently published article it was estimated that the incidence of childhood tuberculosis (TB) in the Western Cape was 407 new cases per 100 000 childhood population per year.1 This incidence was approximately half that in the adult population. Children younger than 13 years of age contributed 13.7% of the total TB burden.1 Further, 10% of the children with TB had severe disease including miliary TB, TB meningitis and spinal TB.
- ItemComparing tuberculosis diagnostic yield in smear/culture and xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithms using a non-randomised stepped-wedge design(Public Library of Science, 2016-03) Naidoo, Pren; Dunbar, Rory; Lombard, Carl; Du Toit, Elizabeth; Caldwell, Judy; Detjen, Anne; Squire, S. Bertel; Enarson, Donald A.; Beyers, NuldaSetting Primary health services in Cape Town, South Africa. Study Aim To compare tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic yield in an existing smear/culture-based and a newly introduced Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithm. Methods TB diagnostic yield (the proportion of presumptive TB cases with a laboratory diagnosis of TB) was assessed using a non-randomised stepped-wedge design as sites transitioned to the Xpert based algorithm. We identified the full sequence of sputum tests recorded in the electronic laboratory database for presumptive TB cases from 60 primary health sites during seven one-month time-points, six months apart. Differences in TB yield and temporal trends were estimated using a binomial regression model. Results TB yield was 20.9% (95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) in the smear/culture-based algorithm compared to 17.9% (95%CI 16.4% to 19.5%) in the Xpert based algorithm. There was a decline in TB yield over time with a mean risk difference of -0.9% (95% CI -1.2% to -0.6%) (p<0.001) per time-point. When estimates were adjusted for the temporal trend, TB yield was 19.1% (95% CI 17.6% to 20.5%) in the smear/culture-based algorithm compared to 19.3% (95% CI 17.7% to 20.9%) in the Xpert based algorithm with a risk difference of 0.3% (95% CI -1.8% to 2.3%) (p = 0.796). Culture tests were undertaken for 35.5% of smear-negative compared to 17.9% of Xpert negative low MDR-TB risk cases and for 82.6% of smear-negative compared to 40.5% of Xpert negative high MDR-TB risk cases in respective algorithms. Conclusion Introduction of an Xpert based algorithm did not produce the expected increase in TB diagnostic yield. Studies are required to assess whether improving adherence to the Xpert negative algorithm for HIV-infected individuals will increase yield. In light of the high cost of Xpert, a review of its role as a screening test for all presumptive TB cases may be warranted.
- ItemA comparison of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment commencement times in MDRTBPlus line probe assay and XpertH MTB/RIF-based algorithms in a routine operational setting in Cape Town(PLoS, 2014-07-31) Naidoo, Pren; Du Toit, Elizabeth; Rory Dunbar, Rory; Lombard, Carl; Caldwell, Judy; Detjen, Anne; Squire, S. Bertel; Enarson, Donald A.; Beyers, NuldaBackground: Xpert MTB/RIF was introduced as a screening test for all presumptive tuberculosis cases in primary health services in Cape Town, South Africa. Study Aim: To compare multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment commencement times in MDRTBPlus Line Probe Assay and Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithms in a routine operational setting. Methods: The study was undertaken in 10 of 29 high tuberculosis burden primary health facilities, selected through stratified random sampling. An observational study was undertaken as facilities transitioned to the Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithm. MDR-TB diagnostic data were collected from electronic laboratory records and treatment data from clinical records and registers. Kaplan Meier time-to-event analysis was used to compare treatment commencement time, laboratory turnaround time and action delay between algorithms. A facility-level paired analysis was done: the median time-to-event was estimated per facility in each algorithm and mean differences between algorithms compared using a paired t-test. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the effect of patient-level variables on treatment commencement time. The difference between algorithms was compared using the hazard ratio. Results: The median treatment commencement time in the Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithm was 17 days (95% CI 13 to 22 days), with a median laboratory turnaround time (to result available in the laboratory) of <1 day (95% CI<1 to 1 day). There was a decrease of 25 days (95% CI 17 to 32 days, p<0.001) in median MDR-TB treatment commencement time in the Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithm. We found no significant effect on treatment commencement times for the patient-level variables assessed. Conclusion: MDR-TB treatment commencement time was significantly reduced in the Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithm. Changes in the health system may have contributed. However, an unacceptable level of delay remains. Health system and patient factors contributing to delay need to be evaluated and addressed to optimise test benefits.
- ItemThe complex relationship between human immunodeficiency virus infection and death in adults being treated for tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa(BioMed Central, 2015) Osman, Muhammad; Seddon, James A.; Dunbar, Rory; Draper, Heather R.; Lombard, Carl; Beyers, NuldaBackground: Despite recognised treatment strategies, mortality associated with tuberculosis (TB) remains significant. Risk factors for death during TB treatment have been described but the complex relationship between TB and HIV has not been fully understood. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all deaths occurring during TB treatment in Cape Town, South Africa between 2009 and 2012 were done to investigate risk factors associated with this outcome. The main risk factor was HIV status at the start of treatment and its interaction with age, sex and other risk factors were evaluated using a binomial regression model and thus relative risks (RR) are reported. Results: Overall in the 93,133 cases included in the study 4619 deaths (5 %) were recorded. Across all age groups HIV-positive patients were more than twice as likely to die as HIV-negative patients, RR = 2.19 (95 % CI: 2.03–2.37). However in an age specific analysis HIV-positive patients 15–24 and 25–34 years old were at an even higher risk of dying than HIV-negative patients, RR = 4.82 and RR = 3.76 respectively. Gender also modified the effect of HIV- with positive women having a higher risk of death than positive men, RR = 2.74 and RR = 1.94 respectively. Conclusion: HIV carries an increased risk of death in this study but specific high-risk groups pertaining to the impact of HIV are identified. Innovative strategies to manage these high risk groups may contribute to reduction in HIV-associated death in TB patients.
- ItemCost analysis of two community-based HIV testing service modalities led by a Non-Governmental Organization in Cape Town, South Africa(BioMed Central, 2017-12-02) Meehan, Sue-Ann; Beyers, Nulda; Burger, RonelleBackground: In South Africa, the financing and sustainability of HIV services is a priority. Community-based HIV testing services (CB-HTS) play a vital role in diagnosis and linkage to HIV care for those least likely to utilise government health services. With insufficient estimates of the costs associated with CB-HTS provided by NGOs in South Africa, this cost analysis explored the cost to implement and provide services at two NGO-led CB-HTS modalities and calculated the costs associated with realizing key HIV outputs for each CB-HTS modality. Methods: The study took place in a peri-urban area where CB-HTS were provided from a stand-alone centre and mobile service. Using a service provider (NGO) perspective, all inputs were allocated by HTS modality with shared costs apportioned according to client volume or personnel time. We calculated the total cost of each HTS modality and the cost categories (personnel, capital and recurring goods/services) across each HTS modality. Costs were divided into seven pre-determined project components, used to examine cost drivers. HIV outputs were analysed for each HTS modality and the mean cost for each HIV output was calculated per HTS modality. Results: The annual cost of the stand-alone and mobile modalities was $96,616 and $77,764 respectively, with personnel costs accounting for 54% of the total costs at the stand-alone. For project components, overheads and service provision made up the majority of the costs. The mean cost per person tested at stand-alone ($51) was higher than at the mobile ($25). Linkage to care cost at the stand-alone ($1039) was lower than the mobile ($2102). Conclusions: This study provides insight into the cost of an NGO led CB-HTS project providing HIV testing and linkage to care through two CB-HIV testing modalities. The study highlights; (1) the importance of including all applicable costs (including overheads) to ensure an accurate cost estimate that is representative of the full service implementation cost, (2) the direct link between test uptake and mean cost per person tested, and (3) the need for effective linkage to care strategies to increase linkage and thereby reduce the mean cost per person linked to HIV care.
- ItemDifferences in health-related quality of life between HIV-positive and HIV-negative people in Zambia and South Africa : a cross-sectional baseline survey of the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial(Elsevier, 2017) Thomas, Ranjeeta; Burger, Ronelle; Harper, Abigail; Kanema, Sarah; Mwenge, Lawrence; Vanqa, Nosivuyile; Bell-Mandla, Nomtha; Smith, Peter C.; Floyd, Sian; Bock, Peter; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Donnell, Deborah; Fidler, Sarah; Hayes, Richard; Hauck, KatharinaBackground: The life expectancy of HIV-positive individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approaching that of HIV-negative people. However, little is known about how these populations compare in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We aimed to compare HRQoL between HIV-positive and HIV-negative people in Zambia and South Africa. Methods: As part of the HPTN 071 (PopART) study, data from adults aged 18–44 years were gathered between Nov 28, 2013, and March 31, 2015, in large cross-sectional surveys of random samples of the general population in 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa. HRQoL data were collected with a standardised generic measure of health across five domains. We used β-distributed multivariable models to analyse differences in HRQoL scores between HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals who were unaware of their status; aware, but not in HIV care; in HIV care, but who had not initiated ART; on ART for less than 5 years; and on ART for 5 years or more. We included controls for sociodemographic variables, herpes simplex virus type-2 status, and recreational drug use. Findings: We obtained data for 19 750 respondents in Zambia and 18 941 respondents in South Africa. Laboratoryconfirmed HIV status was available for 19 330 respondents in Zambia and 18 004 respondents in South Africa; 4128 (21%) of these 19 330 respondents in Zambia and 4012 (22%) of 18 004 respondents in South Africa had laboratory-confirmed HIV. We obtained complete HRQoL information for 19 637 respondents in Zambia and 18 429 respondents in South Africa. HRQoL scores did not differ significantly between individuals who had initiated ART more than 5 years previously and HIV-negative individuals, neither in Zambia (change in mean score –0·002, 95% CI –0·01 to 0·001; p=0·219) nor in South Africa (0·000, –0·002 to 0·003; p=0·939). However, scores did differ between HIV-positive individuals who had initiated ART less than 5 years previously and HIV-negative individuals in Zambia (–0·006, 95% CI –0·008 to –0·003; p<0·0001). A large proportion of people with clinically confirmed HIV were unaware of being HIV-positive (1768 [43%] of 4128 people in Zambia and 2026 [50%] of 4012 people in South Africa) and reported good HRQoL, with no significant differences from that of HIV-negative people (change in mean HRQoL score –0·001, 95% CI –0·003 to 0·001, p=0·216; and 0·001, –0·001 to 0·001, p=0·997, respectively). In South Africa, HRQoL scores were lower in HIV-positive individuals who were aware of their status but not enrolled in HIV care (change in mean HRQoL –0·004, 95% CI –0·01 to –0·001; p=0·010) and those in HIV care but not on ART (–0·008, –0·01 to –0·004; p=0·001) than in HIV-negative people, but the magnitudes of difference were small. Interpretation: ART is successful in helping to reduce inequalities in HRQoL between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals in this general population sample. These findings highlight the importance of improving awareness of HIV status and expanding ART to prevent losses in HRQoL that occur with untreated HIV progression. The gains in HRQoL after individuals initiate ART could be substantial when scaled up to the population level.
- ItemEffect of Universal Testing and Treatment on HIV Incidence — HPTN 071 (PopART)(Massachusetts Medical Society, 2019-07) Hayes, Richard J.; Donnell, Deborah; Floyd, Sian; Mandla, Nomtha; Bwalya, Justin; Sabapathy, Kalpana; Yang, Blia; Phiri, Mwelwa; Schaap, Ab; Eshleman, Susan H.; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Kosloff, Barry; James, Anelet; Skalland, Timothy; Wilson, Ethan; Emel, Lynda; Macleod, David; Dunbar, Rory; Simwinga, Musonda; Makola, Nozizwe; Bond, Virginia; Moore, Ayana; Griffith, Sam; Sista, Nirupama Deshmane; Vermund, Sten H.; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Burns, David N.; Hargreaves, James R.; Hauck, Katharina; Fraser, Christophe; Shanaube, Kwame; Bock, Peter; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; Fidler, SarahBACKGROUND: A universal testing and treatment strategy is a potential approach to reduce the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, yet previous trial results are inconsistent. METHODS: In the HPTN 071 (PopART) community-randomized trial conducted from 2013 through 2018, we randomly assigned 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa (total population, approximately 1 million) to group A (combination prevention intervention with universal antiretroviral therapy [ART]), group B (the prevention intervention with ART provided according to local guidelines [universal since 2016]), or group C (standard care). The prevention intervention included home-based HIV testing delivered by community workers, who also supported linkage to HIV care and ART adherence. The primary outcome, HIV incidence between months 12 and 36, was measured in a population cohort of approximately 2000 randomly sampled adults (18 to 44 years of age) per community. Viral suppression (<400 copies of HIV RNA per milliliter) was assessed in all HIV-positive participants at 24 months. RESULTS: The population cohort included 48,301 participants. Baseline HIV prevalence was 21% or 22% in each group. Between months 12 and 36, a total of 553 new HIV infections were observed during 39,702 person-years (1.4 per 100 person-years; women, 1.7; men, 0.8). The adjusted rate ratio for group A as compared with group C was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 1.18; P=0.51) and for group B as compared with group C was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.88; P=0.006). The percentage of HIV-positive participants with viral suppression at 24 months was 71.9% in group A, 67.5% in group B, and 60.2% in group C. The estimated percentage of HIV-positive adults in the community who were receiving ART at 36 months was 81% in group A and 80% in group B. CONCLUSIONS: A combination prevention intervention with ART provided according to local guidelines resulted in a 30% lower incidence of HIV infection than standard care. The lack of effect with universal ART was unanticipated and not consistent with the data on viral suppression. In this trial setting, universal testing and treatment reduced the population-level incidence of HIV infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; HPTN 071 [PopArt] ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01900977. opens in new tab.)
- ItemFactors associated with linkage to HIV care and TB treatment at community-based HIV testing services in Cape Town, South Africa(Public Library of Science, 2018-04-02) Meehan, Sue-Ann; Sloot, Rosa; Draper, Heather R.; Naidoo, Pren; Burger, Ronelle; Beyers, NuldaBackground Diagnosing HIV and/or TB is not sufficient; linkage to care and treatment is conditional to reduce the burden of disease. This study aimed to determine factors associated with linkage to HIV care and TB treatment at community-based services in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods This retrospective cohort study utilized routinely collected data from clients who utilized stand-alone (fixed site not attached to a health facility) and mobile HIV testing services in eight communities in the City of Cape Town Metropolitan district, between January 2008 and June 2012. Clients were included in the analysis if they were ≥12 years and had a known HIV status. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression models were used to assess the association between determinants (sex, age, HIV testing service and co-infection status) and self-reported linkage to HIV care and/or TB treatment. Results Linkage to HIV care was 3 738/5 929 (63.1%). Linkage to HIV care was associated with the type of HIV testing service. Clients diagnosed with HIV at mobile services had a significantly reduced odds of linking to HIV care (aOR 0.7 (CI 95%: 0.6–0.8), p<0.001. Linkage to TB treatment was 210/275 (76.4%). Linkage to TB treatment was not associated with sex and service type, but was associated with age. Clients in older age groups were less likely to link to TB treatment compared to clients in the age group 12–24 years (all, p-value<0.05). Conclusion A large proportion of clients diagnosed with HIV at mobile services did not link to care. Almost a quarter of clients diagnosed with TB did not link to treatment. Integrated community-based HIV and TB testing services are efficient in diagnosing HIV and TB, but strategies to improve linkage to care are required to control these epidemics.
- ItemFive-year follow-up of participants diagnosed with chronic airflow obstruction in a South African Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) survey(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2018-02-01) Allwood, Brian W.; Gillespie, R.; Bateman, M.; Olckers, H.; Taborda-Barata, Luis; Calligaro, G.; Van Zyl-Smit, R.; Cooper, C. B.; Beyers, Nulda; Bateman, E. D.Background. A community-based prevalence survey performed in two suburbs in Cape Town, South Africa (SA), in 2005, using the international Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) method, confirmed a prevalence of chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) in 23.1% of adults aged >40 years. Objectives. To study the clinical course and prognosis over 5 years of patients with CAO identified in the 2005 survey. Methods. Patients with CAO in 2005 were invited to participate. Standard BOLD and modified questionnaires were completed. Spirometry was performed using spirometers of the same make as in 2005. Results. Of 196 eligible participants from BOLD 2005, 45 (23.0%) had died, 8 from respiratory causes, 10 from cardiovascular causes and 6 from other known causes, while in 21 cases the cause of death was not known. On multivariate analysis, only age and Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 4 disease at baseline were significantly associated with death. Of the 151 survivors, 11 (5.6% of the original cohort) were unavailable and 33 (16.8%) declined or had medical exclusions. One hundred and seven survivors were enrolled in the follow-up study (54.6%, median age 63.1 years, 45.8% males). Post-bronchodilator spirometry performed in 106 participants failed to confirm CAO, defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio of <0.7, in 16 participants (15.1%), but CAO was present in 90. The median decline in FEV1 was 28.9 mL/year (interquartile range –54.8 - 0.0) and was similar between GOLD stages. The median total decline in FVC was 75 mL, and was significantly greater in GOLD stage 1 (–350 mL) than in stages 2 or 3 (–80 mL and +140 mL, respectively; p<0.01). Fifty-eight participants with CAO in 2005 (64.4%) remained in the same GOLD stage, while 21 (23.3%) deteriorated and 11 (12.2%) improved by ≥1 stage. Only one-third were receiving any treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Conclusions. The prevalence, morbidity and mortality of CAO and COPD in SA are high and the level of appropriate treatment is very low, pointing to underdiagnosis and inadequate provision of and access to effective treatments and preventive strategies for this priority chronic non-communicable disease.
- ItemGenetic susceptibility to tuberculosis in Africans : a genome-wide scan(National Academy of Sciences, 2000) Bellamy, Richard; Beyers, Nulda; McAdam, Keith P. W. J.; Ruwende, Cyril; Gie, Robert; Samaai, Priscilla; Bester, Danite; Meyer, Mandy; Corrah, Tumani; Collin, Matthew; Camidge, D. Ross; Wilkinson, David; Hoal-Van Helden, Eileen; Whittle, Hilton C.; Amos, William; Van Helden, Paul; Hill, Adrian V. S.Human genetic variation is an important determinant of the outcome of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We have conducted a two-stage genome-wide linkage study to search for regions of the human genome containing tuberculosis-susceptibility genes. This approach uses sibpair families that contain two full siblings who have both been affected by clinical tuberculosis. For any chromosomal region containing a major tuberculosis-susceptibility gene, affected sibpairs inherit the same parental alleles more often than expected by chance. In the first round of the screen, 299 highly informative genetic markers, spanning the entire human genome, were typed in 92 sibpairs from The Gambia and South Africa. Seven chromosomal regions that showed provisional evidence of coinheritance with clinical tuberculosis were identified. To identify whether any of these regions contained a potential tuberculosis-susceptibility gene, 22 markers from these regions were genotyped in a second set of 81 sibpairs from the same countries. Markers on chromosomes 15q and Xq showed suggestive evidence of linkage (lod = 2.00 and 1.77, respectively) to tuberculosis. The potential identification of susceptibility loci on both chromosomes 15q and Xq was supported by an independent analysis designated common ancestry using microsatellite mapping. These results indicate that genome-wide linkage analysis can contribute to the mapping and identification of major genes for multifactorial infectious diseases of humans. An X chromosome susceptibility gene may contribute to the excess of males with tuberculosis observed in many different populations.
- ItemHas universal screening with Xpert® MTB/RIF increased the proportion of multidrugresistant tuberculosis cases diagnosed in a routine operational setting?(Public Library of Science, 2017-02-15) Naidoo, Pren; Dunbar, Rory; Caldwell, Judy; Lombard, Carl; Beyers, NuldaSetting: Primary health services in Cape Town, South Africa where the introduction of Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert) enabled simultaneous screening for tuberculosis (TB) and drug susceptibility in all presumptive cases. Study aim: To compare the proportion of TB cases with drug susceptibility tests undertaken and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) diagnosed pre-treatment and during the course of 1st line treatment in the previous smear/culture and the newly introduced Xpert-based algorithms. Methods: TB cases identified in a previous stepped-wedge study of TB yield in five sub-districts over seven one-month time-points prior to, during and after the introduction of the Xpert-based algorithm were analysed. We used a combination of patient identifiers to identify all drug susceptibility tests undertaken from electronic laboratory records. Differences in the proportions of DST undertaken and MDR-TB cases diagnosed between algorithms were estimated using a binomial regression model. Results: Pre-treatment, the probability of having a DST undertaken (RR = 1.82)(p<0.001) and being diagnosed with MDR-TB (RR = 1.42)(p<0.001) was higher in the Xpert-based algorithm than in the smear/culture-based algorithm. For cases evaluated during the course of 1st-line TB treatment, there was no significant difference in the proportion with DST undertaken (RR = 1.02)(p = 0.848) or MDR-TB diagnosed (RR = 1.12)(p = 0.678) between algorithms. Conclusion: Universal screening for drug susceptibility in all presumptive TB cases in the Xpert-based algorithm resulted in a higher overall proportion of MDR-TB cases being diagnosed and is an important strategy in reducing transmission. The previous strategy of only screening new TB cases when 1st line treatment failed did not compensate for cases missed pre-treatment.
- ItemHigh heritability of antimycobacterial immunity in an area of hyperendemicity for tuberculosis disease(2010) Cobat, A.; Gallant, C. J.; Simkin, L.; Black, G. F.; Stanley, K.; Hughes, J.; Mark, Doherty T.; Hanekom, W. A.; Eley, B.; Beyers, Nulda; Jais, J.-P.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Abel, L.; Hoal, E. G.; Alcais, A.; Schurr, E.Human antimycobacterial immunity is a critical component of tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis that is often used to infer the presence of TB infection. We report high heritability (>50%) for in vitro secretion of tumor necrosis factor α and interferon γ (IFN-γ), and the frequency of antigen-specific IFN-γ+CD4+ and IFN- γ+CD8+ cells in the response of whole blood to mycobacterial challenge. In principal component analysis, the first 3 components explain 78% of the overall variance consistent with the effect of pleiotropic regulatory genes of human antimycobacterial immunity. These results directly demonstrate the pivotal role played by host genetics in quantitative measures of antimycobacterial immunity underlying immune diagnosis of TB infection. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.