Browsing by Author "Bergenthuin, Johannes Gysbertus"
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- ItemHigh Octane and Oxygenate test set-up for CFR Octane Engine.(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2018-03) Bergenthuin, Johannes Gysbertus; Haines, Richard Walter; Floweday, Gareth; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Engineering. Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Petrol blending involves mixing of several refinery fuel streams, each with different properties that contribute to the usability of the final product. The octane rating of a fuel stream is the measure to which auto-ignition can be resisted. Octane properties of fuel streams are measured on a Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine. The typical operating range of a CFR engine does not allow for high octane (Research Octane Number > 100) and oxygenated (Vol % > 25) fuels. While the 100 RON CFR test limit may generally suffice for routine petrol product certification, it results in difficulty characterising the octane properties of the high octane blending components, leading to difficulty in octane prediction and plant planning. Additionally, the impending clean fuels 2 (CF2) legislation gives rise to the significance of research and development of environmentally friendlier fuels, which includes high volume content oxygenated fuels. There are currently no test laboratories in South Africa that are able to provide octane test results above the 100 RON, and 25 % Vol oxygenate limit. In this study, a conventional CFR engine setup at Stellenbosch University was disassembled, inspected, upgraded and modified to allow for research on high octane and oxygenated fuels. The modified setup was calibrated and declared “fit for use”, based on toluene standardised fuels (TSF), and high volume content oxygenated sample tests. The octane properties of previously uncharacterised Sasol refinery stream components, such as TAME, C5 raffinate, and fuel ethanol blends were successfully investigated. TSF test results demonstrated excellent octane continuity, eliminating the need to resort to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method of using tetraethyl lead (TEL) for bracketing high octane samples. Blending octane number (BON) determinations were investigated, and it was found that, in some cases, similar molecular construction of the base fuel and blending component reduces synergistic intermolecular effects, improving BON results. The modified CFR setup incorporated a chilled fuel float chamber in order to prevent light component evaporation, enabling research on previously untestable highly volatile streams. It was proven that liquid chilling of test samples does not invalidate octane results. A primary reference fuel (PRF) round robin test showed that the modified CFR engine setup at Stellenbosch University produces accurate and repeatable results, on a comparative level with modern, professional and certified octane test laboratories.