Browsing by Author "Bergenholtz, Henning"
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- ItemDeveloping the presentation of word formation in general monolingual dictionaries(Bureau of the WAT, 2013) Bergenholtz, Henning; Gouws, Rufus H.Word formation in the dictionary belongs, at the latest since the contribution of Mugdan (1984), to the topics frequently discussed by lexicographers. Unfortunately the results have not always been satisfactory. This applies both to the formulation of lexicographic theory and to the lexicographic practice because the lexicographic terms have the linguistic terms as point of departure and questions are put as to how these phenomena should be presented in dictionaries. Instead, one should rather ask which information needs dictionary users experience in which types of user situations and then decide where and how items giving word formation can be presented in order to benefit the envisaged target user of a given dictionary. The lexicographic practice is also in an unsatisfactory position with regard to items giving word formation because the typical polyfunctional dictionaries have too many items giving word formation for text reception problems and far too few for text production problems or for the real general knowledge needs regarding word formation in the specific language. This paper gives suggestions regarding the theoretical approaches that could lead to a better user-directed lexicographic practice.
- ItemDiccionario Español de definiciones(Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2018) Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.; Bergenholtz, HenningDictionaries for text reception are information tools that are designed and constructed for helping users (both humans and machines) to decode both oral and written texts. The diccionario español de definiciones is one of these information tools. It has been designed under the tenets of the Function Theory of Lexicography and it is currently under construction (it already has around 80,000 entries). It will be part of Diccionarios Valladolid-UVa, a dictionary portal designed and constructed with funds and resources from the universities of Aarhus and Valladolid, as well as the Danish company Ordbogen A/S. This dictionary aims to fill a gap in the Spanish lexicographical landscape in which dictionaries such as these do not exist, perhaps because the so-called “diccionario general definitorio” (general defining dictionary) is rather common. Our dictionary is rather different from existing ones and puts into practice some new concepts and ideas: (a) discussions about meaning are irrelevant for lexicography; (b) lexicographic data must be “correct”, but “correct” and “true” are not synonymous; (c) data selection and inclusion must be based on users’ needs, especially for avoiding information overload; online dictionaries are dynamic information tools containing dynamic articles with dynamic data; (e) such a dictionary type can only de designed by constructing its own dictionary-writing system, which must be composed of its own editor, search engine and interface. To the best of our knowledge, existing commercial dictionary writing suites do not allow the construction of dynamic dictionaries.
- ItemA functional approach to the choice between descriptive, prescriptive and proscriptive lexicography(2010) Bergenholtz, Henning; Gouws, Rufus H.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In lexicography the concepts of prescription and description have been employed for a long time without there ever being a clear definition of the terms prescription/prescriptive and description/descriptive. This article gives a brief historical account of some of the early uses of these approaches in linguistics and lexicography and argues that, although they have primarily been interpreted as linguistic terms, there is a need for a separate and clearly defined lexicographic application. Contrary to description and prescription, the concept of proscription does not have a linguistic tradition but it has primarily been introduced in the field of lexicography. Different types of prescription, description and proscription are discussed with specific reference to their potential use in dictionaries with text reception and text production as functions. Preferred approaches for the different functions are indicated. It is shown how an optimal use of a prescriptive, descriptive or proscriptive approach could be impeded by a polyfunctional dictionary. Consequently arguments are given in favour of monofunctional dictionaries.
- ItemHow to do language policy with dictionaries(Bureau of the WAT, 2006) Bergenholtz, Henning; Gouws, Rufus H.The lexicographical presentation of terms from the field of language planning often lacks clear and unambiguous distinction and proper explanation. Too often dictionaries even fail to include these terms in the lemma list, and some central terms have not been treated in any general or special purpose dictionary. This article utilises results from research in the field of language policy to make suggestions for the lexicographical presentation and treatment of a number of relevant terms. The emphasis on a distinction between language policy as applied to the intralingual and the interlingual level and the motivation for the introduction of the notion of a communication policy should help lexicographers to give a more comprehensive account of terms from this field and it will also benefit scholars in the field of language policy. A second aspect of this article is the discussion of ways in which dictionaries participate in the implementation of language policy. It is indicated that lexicographers make ever so many decisions of a language political nature. In this regard the lexicographical influence of issues like linguistic hegemony and language purism are discussed. Suggestions are also made for future lexicographical procedures.
- ItemLog files can and should be prepared for a functionalistic approach(Stellenbosch - Stellenbosch University, Bureau of the WAT, 2007) Bergenholtz, Henning; Johnsen, MiaENGLISH ABSTRACT: User surveys of printed dictionaries may be characterised as non-representative and non-realistic laboratory tests, often with retrospective questions based on memory. Log file analyses concerning the use of Internet dictionaries, on the other hand, are based on large numbers of users and look-ups. However, log file analyses have also been characterised by a juggling of numbers based on data calculations of limited direct relevance to practical and theoretical lexicography. This article proposes the development of lexicographically relevant log files for the use in log file analyses in order to give a true picture of how and why different dictionaries are employed for different purposes.
- ItemOn the metalexicographic genre of dictionary reviews, with specific reference to LexicoNordica and Lexikos(Bureau of the WAT, 2016) Bergenholtz, Henning; Gouws, Rufus H.Wiegand (1984) introduced dictionary criticism as a formal component of a general theory of lexicography. Since then many scholars have focused on various aspects of dictionary criticism. In this article a distinction is made between two major types of dictionary criticism, i.e. the review of metalexicographical literature and the review of dictionaries. In the review of dictionaries different types can be identified, i.e. a short discussion without a critical evaluation, a more comprehensive review, a review article, reaction to a review or a review article, a peer review and the evaluation of a dictionary as a part of a bigger metalexicographical contribution. This article gives a brief discussion of the scope of dictionary criticism and looks at some criteria for dictionary reviews before focusing on aspects of dictionary reviews in the Scandinavian journal of lexicography LexicoNordica and the South African lexicography journal Lexikos. A comparison is made between the reviews in these two journals, identifying striking similarities and differences. It is also shown that the reviews in Lexikos frequently refer to topics that are not as relevant to LexicoNordica. This is due to the fact that dictionaries reflect something of the linguistic and cultural environment where they are published. Proposals are made to enhance the quality of reviews in Lexikos and to help ensure a stronger theoretical approach to reviews as a genre that elevates the metalexicographic discourse and improves the dictionary culture of a given community.
- ItemOn the timelessness of music dictionaries(Bureau of the WAT, 2007) Bergenholtz, Henning; Bergenholtz, IngerA music dictionary for the Internet fulfils the same functions as printed music dictionaries. An earlier music dictionary is as useful as a new one if its information is correct. But the fact that an Internet dictionary can at any time be corrected according to modern practices makes it, if not timeless, at least more up to date. Furthermore, the possibilities of illustrating with picture and sound open a wide field of usefulness. Nevertheless the lexicographer has to be aware of the different needs of different user types in different user situations. The dictionary being discussed, Musikordbogen, has been designed for text reception rather than translation or text production. After the inception of the dictionary has been described, the way the possibilities of the Internet has influenced the concept and the content of the articles and the outer texts is discussed.
- ItemPhases and steps in the access to data in information tools(Bureau of the WAT, 2015) Bergenholtz, Henning; Bothma, Theo J. D.; Gouws, Rufus H.In the information society, it is much easier for someone to find relevant data if s/he has an information need because of the availability of databases and electronic information tools. In information science this topic is usually treated under the topic information behaviour. In lexicography the term access process is used (Bergenholtz and Gouws 2010). It can be shown that this process beginning with the "origin of the problem" leading to an "information source usage situation" contains different parts, and that each part contains different phases, with the pre-consultation phase and the intra-consultant phase containing different steps. The most important concepts here are the access route and the access time. In this paper some experiments in two case studies are described to show how different access processes in different user situations take place.
- ItemPolyseme selection, lemma selection and article selection(Bureau of the WAT, 2017) Bergenholtz, Henning; Gouws, Rufus H.In linguistics, more specifically in the field of lexical semantics, a lot of attention has been given to polysemy and homonymy. The identification of and distinction between polysemy and homonymy should not be regarded as unproblematic. The lexicographic practice has traditional ways of presenting and treating polysemy and homonymy. This paper focuses on approaches in both linguistics and lexicography to polysemy and homonymy. Examples from the lexicographic practice are given. It is then shown that that the traditional lexicographic presentation and treatment of homonymy and polysemy in dictionaries with a text reception function, does not really assist the users adequately in their search to find the appropriate meaning of an unfamiliar linguistic expression. It is shown that different dictionaries often have the same lemma selection but not the same selection of polysemes. It is important that a dictionary should correctly coordinate a meaning and a specific linguistic expression. Consequently, a new approach is suggested for the presentation and treatment of homonymy and polysemy. Negotiating criticism expressed in both linguistics and lexicography, it is proposed that the lexicographic practice, in the case of dictionaries for text reception, should abolish the traditional distinction between homonyms as well as the presentation of the different senses of a polysemous word in a single article. Each meaning, whether the only meaning of a lexical item or one of any number of different senses, should be the only item giving the meaning in an article.
- ItemThere is no need for the terms polysemy and homonymy in lexicography(Bureau of the WAT, 2014) Bergenholtz, Henning; Agerbo, HeidiThis paper describes a radically different approach to polysemy and homonymy from the ones normally presented in linguistic and lexicographic literature on this topic. Our main criticism of the traditional approaches lies in their use of the term "word": If a word is defined as a linguistic sign, it means that it only has one expression and one meaning, and this entails that defining polysemy and homonymy as phenomena where one word has two or more meanings is not only problematic — it is impossible. For this reason, we argue that polysemy and homonymy do not exist. Furthermore, we claim that they are not even necessary concepts in lexicography as each lexeme could be represented by a lemma in an information tool. However, by changing the definitions of polysemy and homonymy to phenomena where an expression has two or more meanings, thereby focusing on the expression, it is possible to retain the terms. We propose that the best way to apply and also distinguish between polysemy and homonymy in an information tool would be to present the same expressions with different meanings as well as different grammars as homonyms, while expressions with different meanings but the same grammar are presented as polysems.
- ItemWhat is a dictionary?(Bureau of the WAT, 2012) Bergenholtz, HenningBy comparing different definitions in dictionaries and in theoretical papers we know that lexicographers have very different opinions on the topic: "What is a dictionary?" We see too that lexicographic tools with the same type of content sometimes are called dictionary, sometimes encyclopedia, sometimes lexicon. In reality it is not a large problem if the information in a certain tool is of a high quality as to the intended function. Nevertheless I will give not one but two additional definitions of two different types of information tools. There will also be a discussion on the relevance for the concept of dictionary in connection with the research registration in universities.
- ItemWhat is a lexicographical database?(Bureau of the WAT, 2013) Bergenholtz, Henning; Nielsen, Jesper SkovgardFifty years ago, no lexicographer used a database in the work process. Today, almost all dictionary projects incorporate databases. In our opinion, the optimal lexicographical database should be planned in cooperation between a lexicographer and a database specialist in each specific lexicographical project. Such cooperation will reach the highest level of success if the lexicographer has at least a basic knowledge of the topic presented in this paper: What is a database? This type of knowledge is also needed when the lexicographer describes an ongoing or a finished project. In this article, we provide the description of this type of cooperation, using the most important theoretical terms relevant in the planning of a database. It will be made clear that a lexicographical database is like any other database. The only difference is that an optimal lexicographical database is constructed to fulfil the requirements for a specific lexicographical project.
- ItemWhat is lexicography?(Bureau of the WAT, 2012) Bergenholtz, Henning; Gouws, Rufus H.Within the field of lexicography there are numerous differences when it comes to the interpretation of the term lexicography and differences in determining the nature, extent and scope of this term. Although it is widely accepted that lexicography consist of two components, i.e. theoretical lexicography and the lexicographic practice, different definitions of lexicography give no unambiguous reflection of this distinction and of the individual components. This paper looks at some prevailing diverse uses and interpretations of the word lexicography. This is followed by proposals to ensure a transformative, unified and comprehensive interpretation of this concept.