Browsing by Author "Barraqueta, Jan-Lukas Menzel"
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- ItemAtmospheric deposition fluxes over the Atlantic Ocean : a GEOTRACES case study(Copernicus Publications, 2019-04-11) Barraqueta, Jan-Lukas Menzel; Klar, Jessica K.; Gledhill, Martha; Schlosser, Christian; Shelley, Rachel; Planquette, Helene F.; Wenzel, Bernhard; Sarthou, Geraldine; Achterberg, Eric P.Atmospheric deposition is an important source of micronutrients to the ocean, but atmospheric deposition fluxes remain poorly constrained in most ocean regions due to the limited number of field observations of wet and dry atmospheric inputs. Here we present the distribution of dissolved aluminium (dAl), as a tracer of atmospheric inputs, in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean along GEOTRACES sections GA01, GA06, GA08, and GA10. We used the surface mixed-layer concentrations of dAl to calculate atmospheric deposition fluxes using a simple steady state model. We have optimized the Al fractional aerosol solubility, the dAl residence time within the surface mixed layer and the depth of the surface mixed layer for each separate cruise to calculate the atmospheric deposition fluxes. We calculated the lowest deposition fluxes of 0.15±0.1 and 0.27±0.13 g m−2 yr−1 for the South and North Atlantic Ocean (>40∘ S and >40∘ N) respectively, and the highest fluxes of 1.8 and 3.09 g m−2 yr−1 for the south-east Atlantic and tropical Atlantic Ocean, respectively. Overall, our estimations are comparable to atmospheric dust deposition model estimates and reported field-based atmospheric deposition estimates. We note that our estimates diverge from atmospheric dust deposition model flux estimates in regions influenced by riverine Al inputs and in upwelling regions. As dAl is a key trace element in the GEOTRACES programme, the approach presented in this study allows calculations of atmospheric deposition fluxes at high spatial resolution for remote ocean regions.
- ItemControls on redox-sensitive trace metals in the Mauritanian oxygen minimum zone(Copernicus Publications, 2019-11-05) Rapp, Insa; Schlosser, Christian; Barraqueta, Jan-Lukas Menzel; Wenzel, Bernhard; Ludke, Jan; Scholten, Jan; Gasser, Beat; Reichert, Patrick; Gledhill, Martha; Dengler, Marcus; Achterberg, Eric P.The availability of the micronutrient iron (Fe) in surface waters determines primary production, N2 fixation, and microbial community structure in large parts of the world's ocean, and thus it plays an important role in ocean carbon and nitrogen cycles. Eastern boundary upwelling systems and the connected oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are typically associated with elevated concentrations of redox-sensitive trace metals (e.g., Fe, manganese (Mn), and cobalt (Co)), with shelf sediments typically forming a key source. Over the last 5 decades, an expansion and intensification of OMZs has been observed and this trend is likely to proceed. However, it is unclear how trace-metal (TM) distributions and transport are influenced by decreasing oxygen (O2) concentrations. Here we present dissolved (d; <0.2 µm) and leachable particulate (Lp; >0.2 µm) TM data collected at seven stations along a 50 km transect in the Mauritanian shelf region. We observed enhanced concentrations of Fe, Co, and Mn corresponding with low O2 concentrations (<50 µmol kg−1), which were decoupled from major nutrients and nutrient-like and scavenged TMs (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and copper (Cu)). Additionally, data from repeated station occupations indicated a direct link between dissolved and leachable particulate Fe, Co, Mn, and O2. An observed dFe (dissolved iron) decrease from 10 to 5 nmol L−1 coincided with an O2 increase from 30 to 50 µmol kg−1 and with a concomitant decrease in turbidity. The changes in Fe (Co and Mn) were likely driven by variations in their release from sediment pore water, facilitated by lower O2 concentrations and longer residence time of the water mass on the shelf. Variations in organic matter remineralization and lithogenic inputs (atmospheric deposition or sediment resuspension; assessed using Al as indicator for lithogenic inputs) only played a minor role in redox-sensitive TM variability. Vertical dFe fluxes from O2-depleted subsurface-to-surface waters (0.08–13.5 µmol m−2 d−1) driven by turbulent mixing and vertical advection were an order of magnitude larger than atmospheric deposition fluxes (0.63–1.43 µmol m−2 d−1; estimated using dAl inventories in the surface mixed layer) in the continental slope and shelf region. Benthic fluxes are therefore the dominant dFe supply to surface waters on the continental margins of the Mauritanian upwelling region. Overall, our results indicated that the projected future decrease in O2 concentrations in OMZs may result in increases in Fe, Mn, and Co concentrations.
- ItemInputs and processes affecting the distribution of particulate iron in the North Atlantic along the GEOVIDE (GEOTRACES GA01) section(Copernicus Publications, 2019-04-12) Gourain, Arthur; Planquette, Helene; Cheize, Marie; Lemaitre, Nolwenn; Barraqueta, Jan-Lukas Menzel; Shelley, Rachel; Lherminier, Pascale; Sarthou, GeraldineThe aim of the GEOVIDE cruise (May–June 2014, R/V Pourquoi Pas?) was to provide a better understanding of trace metal biogeochemical cycles in the North Atlantic Ocean. As marine particles play a key role in the global biogeochemical cycle of trace elements in the ocean, we discuss the distribution of particulate iron (PFe), in relation to the distribution of particulate aluminium (PAl), manganese (PMn), and phosphorus (PP). Overall, 32 full vertical profiles were collected for trace metal analyses, representing more than 500 samples. This resolution provides a solid basis for assessing concentration distributions, elemental ratios, size fractionation, and adsorptive scavenging processes in key areas of the thermohaline overturning circulation. Total particulate iron concentrations ranged from as low as 9 pmol L−1 in surface waters of the Labrador Sea to 304 nmol L−1 near the Iberian margin, while median PFe concentrations of 1.15 nmol L−1 were measured over the sub-euphotic ocean interior. Within the Iberian Abyssal Plain, the ratio of PFe to PAl was identical to the continental crust molar ratio (0.21 mol mol−1), indicating the important influence of crustal particles in the water column. Overall, the lithogenic component explained more than 87% of PFe variance along the section. Within the Irminger and Labrador basins, the formation of biogenic particles led to an increase in the PFe∕PAl ratio (up to 0.64 mol mol−1) compared to the continental crust ratio. Continental margins induce high concentrations of particulate trace elements within the surrounding water masses (up to 10 nmol L−1 of PFe). For example, horizontal advection of PFe was visible more than 250 km away from the Iberian margin. Additionally, several benthic nepheloid layers were observed more than 200 m above the seafloor along the transect, especially in the Icelandic, Irminger, and Labrador basins, suspending particles with high PFe content of up to 89 nmol L−1.
- ItemIntroduction to the French GEOTRACES North Atlantic Transect (GA01) : GEOVIDE cruise(European Geosciences Union, 2018-11-29) Sarthou, Geraldine; Lherminier, Pascale; Achterberg, Eric P.; Alonso-Perez, Fernando; Bucciarelli, Eva; Boutorh, Julia; Bouvier, Vincent; Boyle, Edward A.; Branellec, Pierre; Carracedo, Lidia I.; Casacuberta, Nuria; Castrillejo, Maxi; Cheize, Marie; Pereira, Leonardo Contreira; Cossa, Daniel; Daniault, Nathalie; De Saint-Leger, Emmanuel; Dehairs, Frank; Deng, Feifei; De Gesincourt, Floriane Desprez; Devesa, Jeremy; Foliot, Lorna; Fonseca-Batista, Debany; Gallinari, Morgane; Garcia-Ibanez, Maribel I.; Gourain, Arthur; Grossteffan, Emilie; Hamon, Michel; Heimburger, Lars Eric; Henderson, Gideon M.; Jeandel, Catherine; Kermabon, Catherine; Lacan, Francois; Le Bot, Philippe; Le Goff, Manon; Le Roy, Emilie; Lefebvre, Alison; Leizour, Stephane; Lemaitre, Nolwenn; Masque, Pere; Menage, Olivier; Barraqueta, Jan-Lukas Menzel; Mercier, Herle; Perault, Fabien; Perez, Fiz F.; Planquette, Helene F.; Planchon, Frederic; Roukaerts, Arnout; Sanial, Virginie; Sauzede, Raphaelle; Schmechtig, Catherine; Shelley, Rachel U.; Stewart, Gillian; Sutton, Jill N.; Tang, Yi; Tisnerat-Laborde, Nadine; Tonnard, Manon; Treguer, Paul; Van Beek, Pieter; Zurbrick, Cheryl M.; Zunino, PatriciaThe GEOVIDE cruise, a collaborative project within the framework of the international GEOTRACES programme, was conducted along the French-led section in the North Atlantic Ocean (Section GA01), between 15 May and 30 June 2014. In this special issue (https://www.biogeosciences.net/special_issue900.html), results from GEOVIDE, including physical oceanography and trace element and isotope cyclings, are presented among 18 articles. Here, the scientific context, project objectives, and scientific strategy of GEOVIDE are provided, along with an overview of the main results from the articles published in the special issue.
- ItemOceanographic anomalies coinciding with humpback whale super-group occurrences in the Southern Benguela(Nature, 2021-10-22) Dey, Subhra Prakash; Vichi, Marcello; Fearon, Giles; Seyboth, Elisa; Findlay, Ken P.; Meynecke, Jan-Olaf; De Bie, Jasper; Lee, Serena Blyth; Samanta, Saumik; Barraqueta, Jan-Lukas Menzel; Roychoudhury, Alakendra N.; Mackey, BrendanSeasonal feeding behaviour of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) has been observed in the coastal waters of the Southern Benguela where the species has been observed forming super-groups during the austral spring in recent years since 2011. Super-groups are unprecedented densely-packed aggregations of between 20 and 200 individuals in low-latitude waters and their occurrences indicate possible changes in feeding behaviour of the species. We accessed published data on super-groups occurrence in the study area in 2011, 2014 and 2015, and investigated oceanographic drivers that support prey availability in this region. We found that enhanced primary production is a necessary but not sufficient condition for super-groups to occur. Positive chlorophyll anomalies occurring one month prior to the super-group occurrences were identified, but only a concurrent significantly reduced water volume export from the region throughout October were conducive to the aggregations in the specific years. Hydrodynamic model results attributed the anomalous decreased volume export to the strength and orientation of the Goodhope Jet and associated eddy activity. The combination of random enhanced primary production typical of the region and emerging anomalous conditions of reduced water export in October since 2011 resulted in favourable food availability leading to the unique humpback whale aggregations. The novelty of this grouping behaviour is indicative of the lack of such oceanographic conditions in the past. Given the recency of the events, it is difficult to attribute this reduction in ocean transport to climatic regime shifts, and the origin should be likely investigated in the distant water mass interaction with the greater Agulhas system rather than in local intensifications of the upwelling conditions. A positive trend in the humpback whale population abundance points to the need to monitor the exposure of the species to the changing climate conditions.
- ItemRegulation of the phytoplankton heme b iron pool during the North Atlantic spring bloom(Frontiers Media, 2019-07-11) Louropoulou, Evangelia; Gledhill, Martha; Browning, Thomas J.; Desai, Dhwani K.; Barraqueta, Jan-Lukas Menzel; Tonnard, Manon; Sarthou, Geraldine; Planquette, Helene; Bowie, Andrew R.; Schmitz, Ruth A.; LaRoche, Julie; Achterberg, Eric P.Heme b is an iron-containing co-factor in hemoproteins. Heme b concentrations are low (<1 pmol L⁻²) in iron limited phytoplankton in cultures and in the field. Here, we determined heme b in marine particulate material (>0.7 μm) from the North Atlantic Ocean (GEOVIDE cruise – GEOTRACES section GA01), which spanned several biogeochemical regimes. We examined the relationship between heme b abundance and the microbial community composition, and its utility for mapping iron limited phytoplankton. Heme b concentrations ranged from 0.16 to 5.1 pmol L⁻² (median = 2.0 pmol L⁻², n = 62) in the surface mixed layer (SML) along the cruise track, driven mainly by variability in biomass. However, in the Irminger Basin, the lowest heme b levels (SML: median = 0.53 pmol L⁻², n = 12) were observed, whilst the biomass was highest (particulate organic carbon, median = 14.2 μmol L⁻², n = 25; chlorophyll a: median = 2.0 nmol L⁻², n = 23) pointing to regulatory mechanisms of the heme b pool for growth conservation. Dissolved iron (DFe) was not depleted (SML: median = 0.38 nmol L⁻², n = 11) in the Irminger Basin, but large diatoms (Rhizosolenia sp.) dominated. Hence, heme b depletion and regulation is likely to occur during bloom progression when phytoplankton class-dependent absolute iron requirements exceed the available ambient concentration of DFe. Furthermore, high heme b concentrations found in the Iceland Basin and Labrador Sea (median = 3.4 pmol L⁻², n = 20), despite having similar DFe concentrations to the Irminger Basin, were attributed to an earlier growth phase of the extant phytoplankton populations. Thus, heme b provides a snapshot of the cellular activity in situ and could both be used as indicator of iron limitation and contribute to understanding phytoplankton adaptation mechanisms to changing iron supplies.