Browsing by Author "Baker, B."
Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
Results Per Page
- Item2'-5'-Oligoadenylate synthetase-like protein inhibits intracellular M. tuberculosis replication and promotes proinflammatory cytokine secretion(Elsevier, 2019-12) Leisching, G.; Ali, A.; Cole, V.; Baker, B.Host cytoplasmic surveillance pathways are known to elicit type I interferon (IFN) responses which are crucial to antimicrobial defense mechanisms. Oligoadenylate synthetase-like (OASL) protein has been extensively characterized as a part of the anti-viral mechanism, however a number of transcriptomic studies reveal its upregulation in response to infection with a wide variety of intracellular bacterial pathogens. To date, there is no evidence documenting the role (if any) of OASL during mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Using two pathogenic strains differing in virulence only, as well as the non-pathogenic M. bovis BCG strain, we observed that pathogenicity and virulence strongly induced OASL expression after 24 h of infection. Further, we observed that OASL knock down led to a significant increase in M. tb CFU counts 96 h post-infection in comparison to the respective controls. Luminex revealed that OASL silencing significantly decreased IL-1β, TNF-α and MCP-1 secretion in THP-1 cells and had no effect on IL-10 secretion. We therefore postulate that OASL regulates pro-inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines which suppress intracellular mycobacterial growth and survival.
- ItemComparison of human monocyte derived macrophages and THP1-like macrophages as in vitro models for M. tuberculosis infection(Elsevier, 2019) Madhvi, Abhilasha; Mishra, Hridesh; Leisching, G. R.; Mahlobo, P. Z.; Baker, B.Macrophages are the preferential cell types to study various aspects of mycobacterial infection. Commonly used infection models for in-vitro studies are primary macrophages such as human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and macrophage like cell lines (THP-1). It is not clear if commercially available THP-1 cells can be used as hMDMs alternative for in-vitro M.tb infection experiments. We conducted a detailed investigation of the hMDM and THP-1 response to mycobacterial infection on a comparative basis and assess the most crucial aspects of infection which are most commonly studied. We assessed mycobacterial uptake and intracellular growth over time of a pathogenic drug-resistant and drug-susceptible M.tb strains (R179 and H37Rv) through colony forming units (CFUs). Both strains depicted similar uptake and intracellular growth in hMDMs and THP-1 macrophages over time (R179, p=0.954) (H37Rv, p=0.922). Cytotoxicity assays revealed a consistent viability up to day 16 post-infection across the strains in both THP-1 and hMDMs (R179, p=0.271) (H37Rv, p=0.068). Interestingly, both cell lines showed similar mycobacterial uptake and cellular viability in both susceptible as well as resistant M.tb strains. Cytokine/chemokine mRNA analysis through qPCR found no difference between cell types. Further, cytokine secretion measured through Luminex revealed no difference across the strains. Also, cytokine secretion analysis showed no difference in both cell lines across strains. In conclusion, our study shows that THP-1 and hMDMs bacterial uptake, viability and host response to drug-susceptible and drug-resistant mycobacterial infections are similar. Therefore, present study demonstrate that THP-1 cells are suitable substitutes for hMDMs for in-vitro M.tb infection experiments.
- ItemDifferential inhibition of adenylylated and deadenylylated forms of M. tuberculosis glutamine synthetase as a drug discovery platform(Public Library of Science, 2017-03-29) Theron, A.; Roth, R. L.; Hoppe, H.; Parkinson, C.; Van Der Westhuyzen, C. W.; Stoychev, S.; Wiid, I.; Pietersen, R. D.; Baker, B.; Kenyon, C. P.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Glutamine synthetase is a ubiquitous central enzyme in nitrogen metabolism that is controlled by up to four regulatory mechanisms, including adenylylation of some or all of the twelve subunits by adenylyl transferase. It is considered a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of tuberculosis, being essential for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and is found extracellularly only in the pathogenic Mycobacterium strains. Human glutamine synthetase is not regulated by the adenylylation mechanism, so the adenylylated form of bacterial glutamine synthetase is of particular interest. Previously published reports show that, when M. tuberculosis glutamine synthetase is expressed in Escherichia coli, the E. coli adenylyl transferase does not optimally adenylylate the M. tuberculosis glutamine synthetase. Here, we demonstrate the production of soluble adenylylated M. tuberulosis glutamine synthetase in E. coli by the co-expression of M. tuberculosis glutamine synthetase and M. tuberculosis adenylyl transferase. The differential inhibition of adenylylated M. tuberulosis glutamine synthetase and deadenylylated M. tuberulosis glutamine synthetase by ATP based scaffold inhibitors are reported. Compounds selected on the basis of their enzyme inhibition were also shown to inhibit M. tuberculosis in the BACTEC 460TB™ assay as well as the intracellular inhibition of M. tuberculosis in a mouse bone-marrow derived macrophage assay.
- ItemThe functional interplay of low molecular weight thiols in Mycobacterium tuberculosis(BioMed Central, 2018-07-12) Sao Emani, C.; Williams, M. J.; Wiid, I. J.; Baker, B.Background: Three low molecular weight thiols are synthesized by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), namely ergothioneine (ERG), mycothiol (MSH) and gamma-glutamylcysteine (GGC). They are able to counteract reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen species (RNS). In addition, the production of ERG is elevated in the MSH-deficient M.tb mutant, while the production of MSH is elevated in the ERG-deficient mutants. Furthermore, the production of GGC is elevated in the MSH-deficient mutant and the ERG-deficient mutants. The propensity of one thiol to be elevated in the absence of the other prompted further investigations into their interplay in M.tb. Methods: To achieve that, we generated two M.tb mutants that are unable to produce ERG nor MSH but are able to produce a moderate (ΔegtD-mshA) or significantly high (ΔegtB-mshA) amount of GGC relative to the wild-type strain. In addition, we generated an M.tb mutant that is unable to produce GGC nor MSH but is able to produce a significantly low level of ERG (ΔegtA-mshA) relative to the wild-type strain. The susceptibilities of these mutants to various in vitro and ex vivo stress conditions were investigated and compared. Results: The ΔegtA-mshA mutant was the most susceptible to cellular stress relative to its parent single mutant strains (ΔegtA and ∆mshA) and the other double mutants. In addition, it displayed a growth-defect in vitro, in mouse and human macrophages suggesting; that the complete inhibition of ERG, MSH and GGC biosynthesis is deleterious for the growth of M.tb. Conclusions: This study indicates that ERG, MSH and GGC are able to compensate for each other to maximize the protection and ensure the fitness of M.tb. This study therefore suggests that the most effective strategy to target thiol biosynthesis for anti-tuberculosis drug development would be the simultaneous inhibition of the biosynthesis of ERG, MSH and GGC.
- ItemGeneration and characterization of thiol-deficient Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants(Nature Research, 2018) Emani, C. Sao; Williams, M. J.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Taylor, M. J. C.; Carolis, C.; Wiid, I. J.; Baker, B.Mycothiol (MSH) and ergothioneine (ERG) are thiols able to compensate for each other to protect mycobacteria against oxidative stress. Gamma-glutamylcysteine (GGC), another thiol and an intermediate in ERG biosynthesis has detoxification abilities. Five enzymes are involved in ERG biosynthesis, namely EgtA, EgtB, EgtC, EgtD and EgtE. The role of these enzymes in the production of ERG had been unclear. On the other hand, the enzyme MshA is known to be essential for MSH biosynthesis. In this manuscript, we describe the raw data of the generation and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) mutants harbouring a deletion of the gene coding for each of these enzymes, and the raw data of the phenotypic characterization of the obtained thiol-deficient M.tb mutants. High throughput screening (HTS) of off-patent drugs and natural compounds revealed few compounds that displayed a higher activity against the thiol-deficient mutants relative to the wild-type strain. The mode of action of these drugs was further investigated. Raw data displaying these results are described here.