Browsing by Author "Andersson, Monique I."
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- ItemHBV and HIV viral load but not microbial translocation or immune activation are associated with liver fibrosis among patients in South Africa(BioMed Central, 2018-05-08) Maponga, Tongai Gibson; Andersson, Monique I.; Van Rensburg, Christoffel J.; Arends, Joop E.; Taljaard, Jantjie; Preiser, Wolfgang; Glashoff, Richard H.Background: Co-infection with HIV negatively impacts the progression of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, including causing rapid progression to liver fibrosis. Sub-Saharan Africa represents arguably the most important intersection of high endemicity of both chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and HIV infection. Methods: We recruited 46 HBV/HIV-co-infected; 47 HBV-monoinfected; 39 HIV-monoinfected; and 37 HBV/HIV-uninfected patients from Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. All HIV-infected patients were on antiretroviral therapy for ≥3 months. Liver stiffness measurements were assessed using the Fibroscan (Fibroscan 402, Echosens). Cell-based immunomarkers were measured by flow cytometry. Soluble serum/plasma immunomarkers were measured by Luminex technology and enzyme immunoassays. HIV (COBAS/Ampliprep TaqMan HIV-1) and HBV viral loads (in-house assay) were also performed. Results: HBV/HIV co-infected patients showed significantly higher levels of immune activation %CD8+/HLA-DR+/CD38+ (median 30%, interquartile range: 17–53) and %CD8+/PD-1 (median 22%, interquartile range: 15–33), p ≤ 0.01 compared to all other study groups. Despite this, the HBV-mono-infected group had the highest proportion of patients with advanced liver fibrosis (≥13 kPa) as measured by Fibroscan (18%). HBV mono-infected patients showed highest expression of most cytokines including IL-17 and basic fibroblastic growth factor. There was significant positive correlation between detectable HIV and HBV viral replication and liver fibrosis but not immune activation or gut translocation. Discussion: Highly-active antiretroviral therapy, including tenofovir, is effective against both HIV and HBV. Earlier therapy in the co-infected patients may therefore have controlled viral replication leading to better fibrosis scores when compared to HBV mono-infection in this study. On-going HBV and HIV viraemia, rather than microbial translocation or immune activation, appear to be the drivers of liver fibrosis. Moderate to advanced liver fibrosis in HBV-mono-infection may well indicate poor access to screening and treatment of HBV infection.
- ItemHepatitis B virus infection in HIV-exposed infants in the Western Cape, South Africa(Elsevier, 2015-07) Chotun, Nafiisah; Nel, Etienne; Cotton, Mark F.; Preiser, Wolfgang; Andersson, Monique I.; Pathology: Medical VirologyHepatitis B virus infection (HBV) is a significant public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Universal infant vaccination with the hepatitis B (HB) vaccine has been implemented within the South African Expanded Programme of Immunization since April 1995 with concomitant reduction in HBV infection in children. However, the first vaccine dose is only administered at six weeks of age. This delay may lead to a failure to reduce the risk of perinatal HBV transmission to infants born to HIV/HBV co-infected women, in whom HBV infection is often upregulated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV infection in babies born to HIV-infected mothers in the Western Cape, South Africa. HBV serological markers were tested in all infant serum samples and following HB viral load testing, sequencing and genotyping were also performed. Three of 1000 samples screened tested positive for HBsAg and HBV DNA. An additional infant tested positive for HBV DNA alone. All babies had received the HB vaccine at 6, 10 and 14 weeks. The prevalence of HBV infection was therefore 4/1000 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.01–0.79%). Three of four infants and all four mothers were followed-up. Two infants were persistently positive for HBsAg with viral loads above 108 International Units per millilitre. All four maternal samples were positive for HBsAg and HBeAg and one was also positive for anti-HBe. Sequencing analysis of two mother–child HBV pairs showed 100% sequence identity. This study demonstrates HBV infection in HIV-exposed infants despite HB vaccination from 6 weeks of age. A more strategic approach is needed to prevent mother to child transmission of HBV, including screening of pregnant women, HBV-targeted antiviral therapy and HB birth dose vaccine.
- ItemHepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma in South Africa in the era of HIV(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2020-07-13) Maponga, Tongai Gibson.; Glashoff, Richard H.; Vermeulen, Hannali; Robertson, Barbara; Burmeister, Sean; Bernon, Marc; Omoshoro-Jones, Jones; Ruff, Paul; Neugut, Alfred I.; Jacobson, Judith S.; Preiser, Wolfgang; Andersson, Monique I.Background: Patients co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In sub-Saharan Africa, the overlap between high HIV and HBV prevalence may increase the incidence of HCC. This study investigated the impact of HBV/HIV co-infection on age at presentation and survival of HCC. Methods: Ethical approval was obtained to recruit, following informed written consent, patients diagnosed with HCC at oncology units at four South African hospitals. Between December 2012 and August 2015, patients newly diagnosed with HCC were recruited and provided demographic and clinical data and blood specimens. Patients were tested for HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV. Survival data was available for a subset of patients. Results: Of 107 HCC cases, 83 (78%) were male. Median age was 46 years (range 18 to 90 years), 68/106 (64%) were HBsAg-positive, and 22/100 (22%) were HIV infected. Among HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive HCC cases, 18/66 (27%) were HIV-infected compared to 3/34 (9%) among those that were HBsAg-negative (p = 0.04). A greater proportion of HBV/HIV co-infected cases were female than HBV mono-infected (6/18, 33% vs 6/47, 13%; p = 0.005). In addition, HBV/HIV co-infected females presented at a younger mean age (36.8 years) than HBV mono-infected women (50.5 years) (p = 0.09). Median survival was 82 days among the HIV-infected HCC patients compared to 181 days among those without HIV (p = 0.15). Conclusions: HCC is an important complication in the HIV/HBV infected patient. HIV-positive patients presented with HCC at a younger age than HIV-negative patients, this effect appears to be greater in women. These data provide more evidence supporting the call to address. HCC as a cause of morbidity and mortality in the HBV/HIV co-infected patient population. (281 words).
- ItemThe HIV/HBV co-infected patient : time for proactive management(Health and Medical Publishing Group, 2015-02) Andersson, Monique I.; Preiser, Wolfgang; Van Rensburg, Christo; Taljaard, Jantjie; Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Pathology: Medical VirologyHepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects around 240 million people worldwide, with the highest prevalence of disease in Africa and Asia. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cancer in men in Africa, and in around 75% of cases is associated with chronic HBV infection. HIV disproportionately affects sub-Saharan Africa. HIV/HBV co-infection is associated with worse outcomes than HBV monoinfection. Identifying patients who are co-infected enables assessment of liver health and the institution of HCC surveillance. HBV rapid tests are available and could be performed alongside HIV screening. Suppression of HBV viral load reduces complications and improves outcomes. Tenofovir has potent activity against HBV and is becoming increasingly available across sub-Saharan Africa as first-line therapy for HIV. HIV/HBV co-infected patients should be started on HBV active therapy, irrespective of CD4 count. Lifestyle modification, including weight management, avoidance of traditional herbal medication and alcohol restriction, improves liver health and should be encouraged. Confirmation of hepatitis A immunity is prudent. While access to more sensitive tests is limited in sub-Saharan Africa, alpha-fetoprotein and ultrasound scanning is advised for HCC surveillance. Screening and if necessary HBV vaccination of susceptible household and sexual contacts is indicated.
- ItemMother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus in sub-Saharan Africa : time to act(Elsevier, 2015-07) Andersson, Monique I.; Rajbhandari, R.; Kew, M. C.; Vento, S.; Preiser, Wolfgang; Hoepelman, A. I.; Theron, G.; Cotton, Mark F.; Cohn, J.; Glebe, D.; Lesi, O.; Thursz, M.; Peters, M.; Chung, R.; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Pathology: Medical VirologyWhat few people thought possible little more than a decade ago is now reality: scientific and operational advances are greatly reducing the number of deaths from HIV. The number of infant infections has decreased by 58% between 2001 and 2013 and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV might well be eliminated in the next few years.1 By contrast, the prevention and management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection lags well behind, at least in sub-Saharan Africa.