Browsing by Author "Aleixandre-Tudo, J. L."
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- ItemAdditions of glutathione or specific glutathione-rich dry inactivated yeast preparation (DYP) to sauvignon blanc must : effect on wine chemical and sensory composition(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2017) Gabrielli, M.; Aleixandre-Tudo, J. L.; Kilmartin, P. A.; Sieczkowski, N.; Du Toit, W. J.Although the addition of pure glutathione (GSH) is not allowed under current regulations, the concentration of this compound can be increased in wine through the addition of glutathione-enriched dry yeast preparations (DYP). These preparations have been observed to have antioxidant properties and could thus influence wine aroma and sensory characteristics. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DYP and GSH juice additions on the sensory and chemical composition of Sauvignon blanc wine. Four juice additions were performed and compared against a control treatment: 5.5 mg/L of GSH; 0.4 g/L of DYP; 80 mg/L of GSH; 0.4 g/L of DYP plus 80 mg/L of GSH. After three months of bottling, the volatile and sensorial composition was investigated. The addition of DYP preparations to must increased the concentration of certain wine volatile compounds, with increased attributes of riper tropical fruit aromas, which was not always observed with the GSH additions. The addition of DYP influenced the concentrations of some volatile compounds, which modified the white wine aroma. The release of compounds other than GSH by the yeast products is proposed as the reason for these changes. The results observed in this study can assist winemakers to modify the aroma profile of Sauvignon blanc wines.
- ItemEvolution of phenolic composition during barrel and bottle aging(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2020) Aleixandre-Tudo, J. L.; Du Toit, W. J.During red wine ageing, phenolic compounds undergo several reactions that have an impact on wine colour and mouthfeel properties. The evolution of phenolic content is affected during wine ageing. The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic content and evolution of 82 commercial red wines subjected to barrel and bottle ageing. The phenolic content evolution of wines that underwent an ageing period of 12 months in commercial 225 litre barrels, followed by 12 months in the bottle, was monitored. While the total phenolic content remained stable, the anthocyanin fraction was affected the most, which led to substantial changes in the colour properties of the wines. Differences were found during both ageing regimes, indicating certain phenolic reactions being favoured or compromised under different ageing conditions, with an impact on wine colour properties. This paper provides the first large-scale study on the phenolic evolution of commercial red wine during ageing.
- ItemGrape must profiling and cultivar discrimination based on amino acid composition and general discriminant analysis with best subset(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2019) Petrovic, G.; Aleixandre-Tudo, J. L.; Buica, A.The present study aimed to elucidate the amino acid profile of a number of grapevine cultivars relevant to the South African wine industry using 738 grape must samples obtained during the 2016 and 2017 harvests.Â Proline and arginine were found to be the most abundant amino acids, with an average of 697.69 mg/L for proline (range 33.22-3445.43 mg/L) and 388.35 mg/L for arginine (range 13.56-1616.56 mg/L) across all vintages, regions, and cultivars. At the other extreme, ornithine (2.01 mg/L), glycine (3.28 mg/L), methionine (3.64 mg/L) and lysine (3.91 mg/L) were found to have the lowest concentrations, both in terms of the overall average, as well as per cultivar. Furthermore, the data were used to demonstrate how characteristic the amino acid profile is of a particular group (red or white) or cultivar. Cultivars were predicted based on their average amino acid concentrations using general discriminant analysis (GDA) and the best subset principle. For white musts, Chardonnay showed the highest prediction accuracy (100%), and Pinotage (75%) for red cultivars. Overall, the white cultivars included in this study were more accurately distinguished from one another (75.6%) compared to the red (60.1%). This predictive ability was subsequently compared to the accuracy of predicting cultivars based on only the arginine and proline concentrationsas well as the ratio between the two. The use of only these amino acids as well as the addition of the proline/arginine ratio as a predictor variable did not offer satisfactory discriminatory power between either white or red cultivars.