Browsing Doctoral Degrees (History) by Author "Badenhorst, Andre Riaan"
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- Itemn Kultuurhistoriese beeld van die Vrystaat in die vroee Brand-era(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1990) Badenhorst, Andre Riaan; Grobbelaar, P. W.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Right from the beginning it is obvious that the term "Cultural History" has as many meanings as you have cultural historians. The cultural history of the Free State finds itself located in a very definite physical milieu, where the loss of land led to internal unity amongst the Free Staters, where their proximity to the well- known Cape Colony, the Basuto danger and the farming prospects influenced the pattern of expansion very definitely. In its architecture and infrastructure one can also see the practical, but plain viewpoints of this people, supported by their religious idea, not to invest in earthly posessions. From characteristics of the Free-Staters it is obvious that they were a tough emigrant offspring, familiar with frontier wars. They were also true farmers, whose tranquility, righteousness and hospitality was second nature to them. Their cultural life was peaceful, notwithstanding smaller differences between supporters of Free State nationalism and those supporting English nationalism, which originated from the Afrikaner-Dutch, English, German, French and Jewish groups in the Free State, encouraged by their flag, coat of arms, national anthem and national monument. Typical of the Free State farmer was his diligence, initiative, drive, self sufficiency and honesty. The farmers and villagers both experienced the bitter-sweet of life, but in different spheres. The various social, cultural and leisure activities indicate the full cultural life of the inhabitants. Judged by the numbers and diversity of dealers, business flourished and although profits were not very high, needs and costs were adjusted accordingly. Dealers played an important part in the cultural life of their communities. This also includes the banking institutions and mining in the Free State. After this the complete educational system, i.e . teachers, individual schools, classrooms and even books were discussed, with emphasis on the cultural aspects. Divine services and religious freedom played an important part in the national economy and the attitude towards mission work was a sympathetic or Religion not only resulted in the origin of towns, but it also acted as a unifying social power. Not only the D.R. -church, but also the Anglican, Wesleyan, Roman- Catholic, Lutheran and "Gereformeerde" churches, as well as the Anabaptists and Jews were examined closely. There were well-qualified doctors as well as successful unqualified doctors in the Free State. Amongst them, like in all walks of social life, there were those who were a disgrace to the profession. The medical doctor in all his facets, as well as illness, accidents and medicine are discussed . A critical shortage of hospitals and nursing staff is obvious. Under the heading, "The authority", it is clear that the legislative , executive and judicial powers excercised by the Free Staters rendered an effective and fair service to the people, in spite of a lack of finances and education. State departments such as interior and exterior affairs, postal services, finance, defence, welfare, and the judicature got its proper share. After the Basutu wars the Free State experienced periods of peace and development. The discovery of diamonds played an important and positive role, too. However, the arrival of president J H Brand, the third President of the Free State, in 1864 formed the watershed between a wavering, poverty-stricken State and a model Republic.