Browsing Department of Biochemistry by Author "Allie-Reid, Fatima"
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- ItemAbrogation of glucocorticoid receptor dimerization correlates with dissociated glucocorticoid behavior of compound A(HighWire Press, 2010-03) Robertson, Steven; Allie-Reid, Fatima; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Visser, Koch; Binder, Anke; Africander, Donita; Vismer, Michael; De Bosscher, Karolien; Hapgood, Janet; Haegeman, Guy; Louw, Ann; A-7620-2012Compound A (CpdA), a dissociated glucocorticoid receptor modulator, decreases corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and luteneinizing hormone levels in rats. Whether this is due to transcriptional regulation by CpdA is not known. Using promoter reporter assays we show that CpdA, like dexamethasone (Dex), directly transrepresses these genes. Results using a rat Cbg proximal-promoter reporter construct in BWTG3 and HepG2 cell lines support a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent transrepression mechanism for CpdA. However, CpdA, unlike Dex, does not result in transactivation via glucocorticoid-responsive elements within a promoter reporter construct even when GR is co-transfected. The inability of CpdA to result in transactivation via glucocorticoid- responsive elements is confirmed on the endogenous tyrosine aminotransferase gene, whereas transrepression ability is confirmed on the endogenous CBG gene. Consistent with a role for CpdA in modulating GR activity, whole cell binding assays revealed that CpdA binds reversibly to the GR, but with lower affinity than Dex, and influences association of [3H]Dex, but has no effect on dissociation. In addition, like Dex, CpdA causes nuclear translocation of the GR, albeit to a lesser degree. Several lines of evidence, including fluorescence resonance energy transfer, co-immunoprecipitation, and nuclear immunofluorescence studies of nuclear localization- deficient GR show that CpdA, unlike Dex, does not elicit ligand-induced GR dimerization. Comparison of the behavior of CpdA in the presence of wild type GR to that of Dex with a dimerization-deficient GR mutant (GRdim) strongly supports the conclusion that loss of dimerization is responsible for the dissociated behavior of CpdA.
- ItemInhibition of corticosteroid-binding globulin gene expression by glucocorticoids involves C/EBPβ(2014-10) Verhoog, Nicolette; Allie-Reid, Fatima; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Smith, Carine; Haegeman, Guy; Hapgood, Janet; Louw, AnnCorticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), a negative acute phase protein produced primarily in the liver, is responsible for the transport of glucocorticoids (GCs). It also modulates the bioavailability of GCs, as only free or unbound steroids are biologically active. Fluctuations in CBG levels therefore can directly affect GC bioavailability. This study investigates the molecular mechanism whereby GCs inhibit the expression of CBG. GCs regulate gene expression via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which either directly binds to DNA or acts indirectly via tethering to other DNA-bound transcription factors. Although no GC-response elements (GRE) are present in the Cbg promoter, putative binding sites for C/EBPβ, able to tether to the GR, as well as HNF3α involved in GR signaling, are present. C/EBPβ, but not HNF3α, was identified as an important mediator of DEX-mediated inhibition of Cbg promoter activity by using specific deletion and mutant promoter reporter constructs of Cbg. Furthermore, knockdown of C/EBPβ protein expression reduced DEX-induced repression of CBG mRNA, confirming C/EBPβ’s involvement in GC-mediated CBG repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) after DEX treatment indicated increased co-recruitment of C/EBPβ and GR to the Cbg promoter, while C/EBPβ knockdown prevented GR recruitment. Together, the results suggest that DEX repression of CBG involves tethering of the GR to C/EBPβ.
- ItemInvestigation of glucocorticoid and dissociated glucocorticoid activity in hepatoma cell lines with specific reference to regulation of the corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) proximal promoter'(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2003-12) Allie-Reid, Fatima; Louw, A.; Hapgood, J. P.; Swart, P.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Science. Dept. of Biochemistry.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of several hormones on the rat corticosteroid binding globulin proximal promotor and for the first time showed that modulation occurs at the promotor level and can be correlated with changes in corticosteroid binding globulin mRNA and protein levels. The effect of various physical and psychological stressors on rat liver corticosteroid binding globulin mRNA levels was also tested and it was shown that voluntary running had no effect on rat corticosteroid binding globulin levels but that involuntary swimming and immobilization decreased rat corticosteroid binding globulin mRNA levels. Glucocorticoid responsiveness of the corticosteroid binding globulin promoter was investigated further by using truncated contructs of the corticosteroid binding globulin proximal promoter. Glucocorticoid responsiveness was delineated to between -296 and -145bp from the transcription start site an area that contains putative binding sites for D-site binding protein, hepatic nuclear factor-3 and CAAT/enhancer binding protein suggesting that these transcription factors may be involved in glucocorticoid responsiveness of the corticosteroid binding globulin proximal promoter. The dissociative glucocorticoid activity of medroxyprogesterone acetate and Compound A, both putative dissociated glucocorticoids, was compared to standard glucocorticoids by examining transactivation of glucocorticoid response element-containing reporter constructs and transrepression of corticosteroid binding globulin gene expression in hepatic cell lines. Results showed that medroxyprogesterone acetate, but not Compound A, trans activates only in the presence, but not in the absence, of co-transfected glucocorticoid receptor. Medroxyprogesterone acetate down modulated dexamethasone transactivation while the modulatory effect of Compound A depends on the order of addition of Compound A. If added together Compound A has no effect on dexamethasone transactivation, however, if Compound A was added before dexamethasone, Compound A significantly decreased dexamethasone transactivation. Both medroxyprogesterone acetate and Compound A, like glucocorticoids, transrepressed the rat corticosteroid binding globulin proximal promoter. The potency of repression was similar but Compound A repressed with a higher efficacy than medroxyprogesterone acetate. We conclude that Compound A is a completely dissociated glucocorticoid in contrast to medroxyprogesterone acetate that displays only partial dissociation, which is dependent on glucocorticoid receptor levels.