Browsing Anatomical Pathology by browse.metadata.advisor "Du Toit, D. F."
Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
Results Per Page
- ItemThe development of malignancies in renal allograft recipients with special emphasis on Kaposi's sarcoma(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2002-03) Moosa, M. R.; Du Toit, D. F.; Wranz, P. A. B.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Dept. of Pathology. Anatomical Pathology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Renal transplantation is undoubtedly the best treatment for patients with irreversible renal failure. As a prelude to establishing the nature of malignancies in renal transplant patients we sought to determine factors influencing the outcome of renal transplantation. The survival of renal allografts and of recipients is influenced by a number of demographic, clinical and therapeutic factors. Some of these factors have been better studied than others, and we sought to establish the influence of particular factors on our own patients and allografts. The total number and nature of malignancies developing in these patients subsequent to transplantation was also established. All patients transplanted in our unit between April 1, 1976 and March 31, 1999 were included in the study. In the study period, 542 patients received 623 renal allografts. Demographic details were analysed. Patient and graft outcomes were assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The survival curves were compared using univariate analysis; results that were significant were subjected to multivariate analysis. The influence of a number of factors on graft and patient survival were assessed and compared. The impact of a variety of variables on the number and behaviour of malignancies was also established. Patient and graft survival were superior in recipients who were aged less than 40 years; cyclosporine improved graft survival but not patient survival. Early graft loss was associated with a high patient mortality rate. Contrary to the experience elsewhere, black and white patients had similar outcomes after renal transplantation. Of the 542 recipients 41(8.1%) developed malignancies with Kaposi's sarcoma occurring, in 21 patients and skin cancers in 13 patients. The relative risk for the Kaposi's sarcoma development was 235. Kaposi's sarcoma was the most common tumour in non-white patients (accounting for 79% of malignancies in this group) and occurred less than 2 years after transplantation. Kaposi's sarcoma was equally common in male and female recipients. Under cyclosporine the latent period to malignancies was reduced but the frequency remained unaffected. Kaposi's sarcoma skin lesions were present in all the affected patients, with the lower limbs the most common site of involvement. Kaposi's sarcoma responded to reduction of immunosuppression without the need for complete discontinuation, and with preservation of renal function. Extracutaneous involvement occurred in over one quarter of the patients and invariably proved fatal in all patients with visceral organ involvement. The histopathology of posttransplant Kaposi's sarcoma was the same as that described in the other epidemiological forms of the disease. White male recipients were at the greatest risk of developing skin cancers after renal transplantation. Squamous cell carcinomas were relatively more common and were found in sun-exposed areas. The lesions were treated only by local excision and none metastasized. Malignant lymphoma, breast cancer and lung cancer occurred in individual patients but the relative risk of all these lesions were close to unity. Patients with preexisting cancers did not develop recurrences following transplantation. SECTION 2 Both immunosuppression and immunostimulation are thought to play a role in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma after renal transplantation. We investigated the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the immune system of patients who had developed Kaposi's sarcoma. The lymphocyte phenotypes were established using flow cytometry while transformation studies were performed using mitogens. Pokeweed was used as the B-cell mitogen, and concanavalin A and phytahaemagglutinin were the T-cell mitogens. Cell mediated immunity was also tested using delayed type hypersensitivity skin tests and the serum immunoglobulin levels were estimated. Firstly, with regard to humoral immunity, 2/3 of the patients had normal serum immunoglobulin levels, although the B-cell count was reduced in all the patients on immunosuppression. B-cell transformation tests with pokeweed mitogen revealed that B-cell function was not impaired in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma. The patients with decreased immunoglobulin levels also appeared to be malnourished as evidenced by low albumin levels. Secondly, CD3 and CD4, but not CD8, cell counts were reduced in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma. The transformation analyses revealed significant differences compared to controls, with reduced responses in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma. Thirdly, natural killer (NK) cell numbers were also reduced in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma. There were no significant differences in delayed type hypersensitivity skin reactions that could not be accounted for by racial differences. Cellular immunity is impaired in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma with a reduction in the number of NK cells. Both of these components of the immune system are important in protection against malignant transformation. SECTION 3 Kaposi's sarcoma is an important complication of renal transplantation. If the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) causes Kaposi's sarcoma, the virus should be present in all Kaposi's sarcoma lesions and be drastically reduced or cleared from involved tissue on remission of the Kaposi's sarcoma. Fourteen renal transplant patients with cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma, including autopsy material from two cases, were investigated for the presence of HHV-8. A second skin biopsy was taken from 11 survivors, after remission of Kaposi's sarcoma, from normal skin in the same anatomical region as the first biopsy. Remission was induced by reduction or cessation of immunosuppression. A peripheral blood sample was collected simultaneously with the repeat biopsy. A nested polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect HHV-8 DNA in the biopsy tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells followed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction product to detect any nucleotide changes. HHV-8 DNA was detected in all the cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma and all the visceral Kaposi's sarcoma samples, as well as a number of Kaposi's sarcoma-free organs including the thyroid, salivary gland, and myocardium that have not been described before. Mutations in the viral DNA could be demonstrated in all patients. The mutations found were related more to that seen in AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma cases than that found in African endemic Kaposi's sarcoma cases. HHV-8 sequences could be detected in follow-up frozen skin biopsies of five patients but were negative in the equivalent formalin-fixed specimens. Viral DNA was also detected in 2 of 11 peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples collected at the time of the follow-up skin biopsies. Reduction or withdrawal of immunosuppression allows the immune system to recover sufficiently to reduce viral replication with subsequent viral persistence and low-grade viral replication that coincides with clinical remission of the Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. This provides further evidence for the important etiological role played by HHV-8 in the pathogenesis of posttransplant Kaposi's sarcoma. SECTION 4 The recently discovered HHV-8 is an important factor in the aetiopathogenesis of Kaposi’s sarcoma. The reason for the exceptionally high prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma in our area, as well as that of other developing countries, remains unexplained. We investigated the seroprevalence of the virus in the different healthy subjects as well as organ donor-recipient pairs. All recipients were tested at the time of transplantation, as were the paired donors. Control subjects tested were healthy blood donors, Renal Unit staff, and household contacts of patients with Kaposi's sarcoma. An enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to the whole virus was used for screening and all positives were confirmed using ELISA to the latent ORF 73 antigen. The prevalence of HHV-8 was similar in all groups and averaged less than 6%. After transplantation the seroprevalence increased to almost 20% but neither the transplanted kidney nor blood transfused perioperatively could account for the increase. Kaposi's sarcoma developed in 3 of the 116 patients transplanted. All patients with Kaposi's sarcoma were proven to be HHV-8 seropositive before the development of the disease. Two of the patients who developed Kaposi's sarcoma were seropositive before transplantation. No patient who received a graft from a seropositive donor developed Kaposi's sarcoma. We refute the notion that a high prevalence of HHV-8 in the general population is responsible for the high prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma in our population or that the donor organ is a major source of infection in renal transplant recipients. Reactivation, rather than primary infection appears to be the source of the virus after renal transplantation.