Browsing Anatomical Pathology by browse.metadata.advisor "De Jong, G."
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- ItemIdentification of clinically-informative biomarkers within the spectrum of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in the South African population(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2006-03) Van Rensburg, C. J.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Wright, C.; De Jong, G.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Health Sciences. Dept. of Pathology. Anatomical Pathology.Patients with chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are predisposed to Barrett’s metaplasia and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The availability of molecular markers that can objectively identify patients with Barrett’s oesophagus at increased risk of carcinoma is highly desirable. A literature search was conducted to identify potentially useful biomarkers for genotype-phenotype correlation studies in South African patients with Barrett’s oesophagus. The COX-2, c-myb and c-myc genes selected for mRNA expression analysis were analysed in 26 patients with Barrett’s metaplasia (BM) without dysplasia; 14 with Barrett’s oesophagus and dysplasia (BD); 2 patients with Barrett’s adenocarcinoma (BAC); 19 with erosive oesophagitis (ERD); 25 with non-erosive oesophagitis (NERD) and 19 control individuals with a normal gastroscopy and no gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) symptoms. In the BD/BAC group, 69% (11/16) showed increased c-myb mRNA expression compared with 35% (9/26) in the BM group (p = 0.03). A statistically significant difference (p = 0.002) in c-myb expression was also observed between Barrett’s patients (20/42, 48%) and the control groups (9/63, 14%). In the BD patients, 21% (3/14) had increased c-myc mRNA expression compared with none in those with BM (p < 0.05) and BAC. No significant differences in mRNA expression levels were observed between ethnic groups for the genes analysed. In an attempt to determine whether the low expression level of c-myc in the study cohort may be related to possible gene-gene interaction, DNA samples of 199 individuals were subjected to genotyping of the functional GT-repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the NRAMP1/SLC11A1 gene. Both these genes are involved in iron metabolism and c-myc is known to repress NRAMP1/SLC11A1. Genotype and allele frequencies were similar in all the groups studied with the 3/3 genotype being the most common. However, none of the three above-mentioned BD patients with increased c-myc mRNA expression had the 3/3 genotype. Therefore, although small in number, c-myc-NRAMP1/SLC11A1 interaction may be of adverse significance in patients with allele 2. TP53 mutation analysis was performed on 68 Barrett’s patients, and TP53 immuno-staining on oesophageal biopsy specimens of 55 subjects. Sporadic TP53 mutations were not identified in any of the patients with BM or dysplasia without BAC. Immuno-histochemistry staining of 2+ and 3+ intensity was similar in patients with metaplasia and dysplasia (58%). The low mutation frequency and relative non-specificity of TP53 immunostaining observed in Barrett’s patients seem to preclude its widespread use as a screening tool. TP53 mutation detection may however be useful for risk stratification once dysplasia has been diagnosed, as mutations G245R and D281Y were identified in two patients with BAC. Of the genes studied in the South African population, c-myb represents the most useful marker for early detection of an increased cancer risk in Barrett’s patients. In future, patients with Barrett’s oesophagus may benefit from genetic assessment to complement existing cancer surveillance and treatment strategies.
- ItemThe MED-PED project : presymptomatic diagnosis in families with disease- related LDL receptor gene mutations(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2000-03) Vergotine, Joseph Vincent; Kotze, Maritha J.; De Jong, G.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences . Dept. of Pathology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) contributes significantly to the high death rate from cardiovascular disease worldwide. FH is a common autosomal co-dominant disease characterised by raised cholesterol levels and premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Whilst these features usually are very prominent in homozygotes the clinical diagnosis of heterozygotes is complicated by variable phenotypic expression. Specific founder genes in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene have increased the prevalence of FH in South African Afrikaners, Indians, Jews and Coloureds, and screening for these known mutations allows unequivocal diagnosis of FH-affected individuals. The systematic molecular analysis of FH resulted in the identification of at least ten founder-type LDLR gene mutations among the 56 different gene defects described to date in the diverse South African population. DNA screening of 792 at-risk family members for the FH-related mutations identified in 379 index cases, allowed accurate disease diagnosis in an additional 340 relatives and exclusion of the relevant mutation in 452 individuals. This effort forms part of the MED PED FH initiative, a collaborative project to "Make Early Diagnosis and Prevent Early Deaths in MEDical PEDigrees with FH". Evaluation of clinical criteria versus DNA diagnosis of three founder-related mutations (D154N, D206E and V408M) in the South African population demonstrated that the sensitivity and specificity of diagnoses, based on total cholesterol values measured in family members of index cases recruited for this study, were 88% and 77%, respectively. A population-directed DNA diagnosis of FH is therefore justified in South Africa on a routine basis, since expression of the defective gene measured in biochemical tests does not allow accurate diagnosis of FH in all cases. The application of mutation detection was illustrated by prenatal diagnosis of FH performed for a couple who are both heterozygous for the most common Afrikaner mutation, D206E. The mutation was absent in the foetus and a normocholesterolaemic infant was born. Prenatal diagnosis of FH, aimed at the detection of homozygous cases, is particularly applicable in populations and families with molecularly defined LDLR gene mutations. The MED-PED approach resulted in accurate diagnosis and subsequent treatment of FH in more patients, and referral to lipid clinics where they could receive the intensive care their condition justifies. Molecularly diagnosed FH patients will be the first to benefit from future treatment approaches based on mutation type.