Browsing Department of Physics by browse.metadata.advisor "Cowley, Anthony Adverse"
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- ItemProduction of radionuclides with medium energy protons with the emphasis on targetry(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-12) Vermeulen, Christiaan; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Cowley, Anthony Adverse; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Science. Dept. of Physics.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The facilities for radionuclide production at iThemba LABS have undergone a number of significant upgrades over the last decade in order to increase the production capacity and to diversify the product portfolio. Central to this effort is a new vertical beam target station (VBTS) and its associated targetry, designed and built to operate at higher proton beam intensities for the large-scale production of relatively long-lived, high-value radionuclides such as 22Na, 68Ge and 82Sr. Along with the VBTS, an existing smaller horizontal beam target station was adapted to accommodate targetry for 18F production, mainly to supply 18F-FDG for use in positron emission tomography (PET). The production capacity was further enhanced by means of a beam splitter to enable bombardments in two target stations simultaneously. This required new developments on several systems, e.g. beam diagnostics, control, interlocking and cooling. This project brings together a number of different aspects of the upgraded facilities as well as the associated research and development that enable the production of radionuclides in the medium energy region, up to approximately 70 MeV. Investigations were performed on the cooling of the interfacial windows between the cyclotron vacuum and the targets as well as the direct cooling of the targets themselves during intense proton bombardments. For this purpose, empirical as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations were performed. In addition, the local radiation shield of the VBTS as well as the beam transport in some of the targetry was investigated by means of Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations. Excitation functions for the production of various radionuclides in the 66 MeV proton bombardment of 192Os, 159Tb, natGd, 155Gd, 152Gd, 93Nb, natZr and 89Y were measured and compared with theoretical predictions by means of statistical nuclear model calculations as well as the TENDL-2012 library. In particular, the production of 186Re, selected radioterbiums (149;152;155Tb) and radiozirconiums (88;89Zr) is of interest in existing and emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. A study on 28Mg production in the proton bombardment of natCl using stacked chloride targets was also performed at 200 MeV. This radionuclide is of interest as 28Mg is the only practical radiotracer of Mg. Finally, new targetry for the production of 18F was developed, modelled and optimized for the non-standard degraded beam employed in this particular case.